Walking and Working Surfaces 171
Walking and Working Surfaces will inform employees of the ways they can decrease the risks of injury and death regarding walking and working surfaces by following the guidelines as provided by OSHA. Hazards exist when people or objects may fall from one level to another through various openings such as floor and wall openings, floor and wall holes, platforms, or runways. All openings must be guarded by devices such as railings, covers, and toeboards. Standards regarding the construction, dimension, and usage of stairs, ladders, scaffolding, and manually propelled ladder stands are also set by OSHA. Failing to use and maintain walking and working surfaces correctly can result in serious injury. After taking this course, employees will be able to describe OSHA regulations covering safe practices with walking and working surfaces and how following those regulations will positively impact daily operations in the workplace.
Number of Lessons 21
- Recognizing Walking and Working Surfaces
- Employee Responsibilities
- Housekeeping Requirements
- Floor Loading Requirements
- Walking and Working Surfaces Requirements Review
- Types of Floor Openings, Wall Openings, and Holes
- Protecting Floor Openings and Holes
- Protecting Wall Openings and Holes
- Protecting Platform and Runway Openings and Holes
- Fixed Industrial Stair Requirements
- Protecting and Accessing Openings and Holes Review
- Portable Wood Ladder Requirements: Construction and Dimension
- Portable Wood Ladder Requirements: Care and Usage
- Portable Metal Ladder Requirements: Construction and Dimension
- Portable Metal Ladder Requirements: Care and Usage
- Portable Ladder Requirements Review
- Fixed Ladder Requirements
- Scaffolding Safety Requirements
- Manually Propelled Mobile Ladder Stand and Scaffold Requirements
- Dockboard Safety Requirements
- Ladder Requirements and Safety Review
- Describe the purpose of safeguarding walking and working surfaces.
- Describe employee responsibilities regarding walking and working surfaces.
- Identify proper housekeeping methods for walking and working surfaces.
- Describe floor loading requirements.
- Identify types of floor openings, wall openings, and holes.
- Describe requirements for protecting floor openings and holes.
- Describe requirements for protecting wall openings and holes.
- Describe requirements for protecting platform and runway openings and holes.
- Identify requirements for fixed industrial stairs.
- Identify construction and dimension requirements for portable wood ladders.
- Identify care and usage requirements for portable wood ladders.
- Identify construction and dimension requirements for portable metal ladders.
- Identify care and usage requirements for portable metal ladders.
- Identify requirements for fixed ladders.
- Identify requirements for scaffolding.
- Identify requirements for manually propelled mobile ladder stand and scaffold requirements.
- Identify requirements for dockboards.
A source of security or strength; something that supplies a secure hold for something else. Anchors secure portable dockboards into position.
A document that contains all the necessary information to manufacture and/or assemble a part. The key sections of a blueprint are the drawing, dimensions, and notes.
A room specifically designated to housing the boiler or heat or steam-generating equipment. Boiler rooms are usually located in the basement of buildings and are accessed using stairs.
A form of support. Using a ladder as a brace puts undue stress on its rungs and rails and may make it unsafe.
A device that steadies or supports other components. Bracing allows the work level height to exceed the minimum base of ladder stands and scaffolds.
A device used to span the space between a loading dock and the bed of a truck or rail car. Bridge plates are also known as dockboards.
A rough edge remaining on material, such as metal, after it has been machined. Burrs pose an injury risk and interfere with the fitting of parts.
A metal guard or enclosure surrounding a fixed ladder that is used to protect the climber. Cages are a type of safety device that are incorporated with some types of ladders.
A type of wheel that can pivot and change direction when pushed. Casters allow ladder stands and scaffolds to be moved without disassembly.
An inclined passageway, also known as a hatchway, connecting one level to the next. A chute is used for transporting objects and materials.
The amount of weight that is applied to a specific point, such as a stair tread. Fixed industrial stairs must support a concentrated load of at least 1,000 pounds (454 kg).
A material's ability to resist deterioration caused by exposure to an environment. Corrosion-resistant materials are used to construct ladders.
A raised circular pattern that is cut or pressed into metal. Dimpling can make a ladder slip-resistant.
A device used to span the space between a loading dock and the bed of a truck or rail car. Dockboards are also known as bridge plates.
A channel or pipe designed to remove or divert liquid away from an area by way of entry holes. Drains are found in on the floor surface of various structures.
A type of portable rung ladder that has two or more collapsible sections that allow it to be shortened or lengthened. Extension ladders are used to reach very high areas.
Elevated, open-sided floors that protrude over the surrounding floor or ground. Extension platforms may be surrounded by a standard barrier.
fixed industrial stairs
Stairs that are permanently attached to a building. Fixed industrial stairs are required whenever employees must regularly travel between levels.
A ladder that is permanently attached to a structure. Fixed ladders may have rails or individual rungs.
Ladders that are permanently attached to a structure. Fixed ladders may have rails or individual rungs.
floor and wall openings
The category used to describe gaps or holes in floors in walls. Working near floor and wall openings require employees to observe safe practices.
An opening in any floor, platform, pavement or yard that measures less than 12 inches (305 mm) but more than 1 inch (25 mm) through which objects, but not persons, may fall. A gap between utility pipes and the floor is an example of a floor hole.
The careful placement of weight on a given building level or platform. Floor loading must follow the load rating limits.
An opening, such as a stairway in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard, through which persons may fall. A floor opening measures more than 12 inches (305 mm).
A small industrial truck used for carrying, lifting, and stacking materials. Forklifts can transport heavy loads.
A type of scaffold that consists of large, prefabricated metal pieces that fit together to form a frame. The frame scaffold is the most common supported scaffold in manufacturing.
A barrier that restricts access to an area. Gates can be used to protect people from falling objects.
A screen-like barrier with openings. The openings are no wider than eight inches (203 mm).
A rail secured to posts and erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms. Guardrails provide a handhold and a barrier to prevent falls.
Braces or supports. Using a ladder as a guy puts undue stress on its rungs and rails and may make it unsafe.
Standard entry doors that are divided in two horizontally, each portion having the ability to open or close independently of the other. Half doors are also known as Dutch doors.
Protection for a floor hole. Hatch covers resemble lids.
Inclined passageways that connect one level to the next. Hatchways are also known as chutes and used for transporting goods and materials.
A cover for a floor hole that is the same size as the hole and is attached with fasteners. The fasteners allow the cover to swing open.
hinged floor opening
A cover for a floor opening that is the same size as the opening. A hinged floor opening is attached with fasteners that allow it to swing open.
The practice of regular cleaning, straightening, organizing, and maintaining the workspace. Good housekeeping helps surfaces stay in functional, operational, and safe conditions.
Power created by the motion and pressure of fluids. Hydraulic lifts are used to control and position powered dockboards.
Fixed ladders without side rails. On an individual-rung ladder, each rung is permanently attached to the surface of a wall, machine, or piece of equipment.
A criss-cross pattern that is cut or pressed into metal. Knurling makes metal slip resistant.
A floor opening that is similar to a stairway opening except that it surrounds a ladder. A ladderway should be guarded to minimize safety risks.
Floor openings that surround ladders. Ladderways are similar to stairway openings.
Safety restraints that wrap around the climber's waist and attach to the ladder. Lifebelts prevent falls.
The total amount of weight, including people, materials, products, and tools, that is placed on a surface. Walking and working surfaces are required by OSHA to support different load amounts.
The specified amount of weight per square foot (kilogram per square meter) that can be placed on a given building level or platform. The load capacity of a surface ensures safety.
load rating limits
The maximum amount of weight that a surface can support safety. OSHA defines load rating limits.
A platform where trucks or trains can be loaded or unloaded. Loading docks add ease to the loading and unloading processes.
A platform where trucks or trains can be loaded or unloaded. Loading docks make loading materials into a vehicle easier.
Holes that serve as entrances to drains for storm water or other liquids. Manholes are usually round.
manually propelled mobile ladder stands
A unit that consists of a ladder on a rigid base that is set on wheels or casters. When it is not occupied, the unit may be pushed from one location to another.
manually propelled mobile scaffolds
A raised platform on which employees can work at elevated heights that is set on wheels or casters. When it is not occupied, the unit may be moved from one location to another.
An intermediate level between the floor and ceiling of a large, open space. Mezzanines have load rating limits.
Horizontal crosspieces that run halfway between the planking and railing on a platform.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA. A federal agency under the U.S. Department of Labor that ensures safe working conditions and helps employers reduce injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. OSHA has developed rules that safeguard walking and working surfaces to minimize safety risks.
An entrance in a railing surrounding a floor opening that is diagonal from the floor opening rather than opposite. People and materials must go around the railing before entering the opening.
A floor that is not completely surrounded by walls. An open-sided floor may have only one side of it without a wall.
A walking surface that is raised and has at least one side that is not guarded by a wall. An open-sided floor that is 4 ft. (1 m) above the adjacent floor or ground level must be guarded by a railing.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A federal agency under the U.S. Department of Labor that ensures safe working conditions and helps employers reduce injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. OSHA has developed rules that safeguard walking and working surfaces to minimize safety risks.
A support that extends out from the base of a tall item to add stability. Outriggers allow the work level height to exceed the minimum base of ladder stands and scaffolds.
The state of a surface burdened with excessive amounts of weight. Overloaded surfaces pose safety hazards.
A long, usually narrow, space with walls on each side that is reserved for walking. A passageway gives people access between different buildings or different rooms withing the same building.
Barriers that consist of several slats made of wood or other materials. Picket fences are fitted closely together and attached to two or more rails.
The degree to which a ladder is angled, which is determined by its length. The base of a ladder should be placed at a distance from the vertical that is one-quarter the ladder's length.
A large, deep hole in the earth or in the floor of a building. Pits might require stairs to be accessed by employees.
Large, deep holes in the earth or the floor of a building. Pits must be guarded.
An open-sided floor that is elevated above the surrounding floor or ground. Platform floors must not be overloaded according to OSHA.
An open-sided floor that is elevated above the surrounding floor or ground. A platform is a type of floor opening.
A type of dockboard that is lifted and placed in position manually, usually with the help of a forklift. Portable dockboards must contain handholds or other means to lift and move them.
portable metal ladders
Moveable climbing and descending devices that are made of metal. Portable metal ladders consist of side rails and rungs.
portable rung ladders
Non-self-supporting ladders that consist of two rails and several crosspieces. Types of portable rung ladders include straight ladders, single ladders, and sectional ladders.
Moveable, two-sided, self-supporting ladders that are non-adjustable in length. Portable step ladders have one side with flat steps, while the other side is used only for stabilization and support.
portable wood ladders
Moveable climbing and descending devices formed by side rails and rungs. There are four types of portable wood ladders.
A type of dockboard that is electrically controlled and placed in position. Powered dockboards usually have hydraulic lifts that control their positioning.
Objects or devices that stick out from flat surfaces. Protrusions may catch clothing or cause tripping or injury.
Hand-holds that serve as barriers to holes or openings. Rails usually consist of top bars connected to sets of posts and often have middle rails.
The vertical distance from the top of a tread to the top of the next higher tread. Rise height must be uniform within a set of stairs.
Barriers that consist of gates with wheels. Rollers can protect people from falling objects.
Non-self-supporting ladders that consist of two rails and several crosspieces. Rung ladders may be portable.
Crosspieces of ladders that are used for stepping. Rungs are usually round or oval.
A passageway for persons that is elevated above the surrounding floor or ground level. A runway can enable movement from one building to another.
A passageway for persons that is elevated above the surrounding floor or ground level. A walkway between buildings is a type of runway.
A raised platform on which employees can work at elevated heights. Scaffolding is usually constructed of metal or wooden crosspieces, supports or cables, and metal or wooden planking.
Ladders with wheels and bases for easy movement, often used to access shelving. Side-rolling ladders are also known as trolley ladders.
Platforms or dividers. Skids are used for stacking goods and materials.
Windows in the roofs of buildings that allow light to enter an area. Skylights must be guarded.
The vertical sections of fence-like barriers. Slats may serve as guards for wall holes.
A chemical or combination of chemicals used to dissolve materials. A solvent can be used to clean ladders that have been exposed to substances that may make them dangerous to users.
Ladders with features specific for particular tasks like shelves for holding materials. Special-purpose ladders include painter's and mason's ladders.
A hinge-like device used to separate, stabilize, and lock the two sides of a stepladder into position. A spreader keeps a stepladder from closing.
A hand-hold similar to a standard stair railing that is installed in parallel with the rise of a set of stairs. Stair railings must be fixed at a height of between 30 and 34 inches (762 and 864 mm) and above the stair tread.
The horizontal portion of a step. The stair tread is the portion of the step on which you place your feet.
A floor opening specifically for access to a set of stairs. Stairway openings must be guarded on at least three sides.
A floor opening specifically for access to a set of stairs. Stairway openings must be guarded on at least three sides.
standard stair railing
Protection for a stairway opening that consists of a top rail, intermediate rail, and posts that rise 42 inches (107 mm) from the upper surface being protected. Standard stair railings are required by OSHA to guard stairway openings.
Two-sided, self-supporting ladders that are non-adjustable in length. A step ladder has one side with flat steps, while the other side is used only for stabilization and support.
The amount of space between one walking and working surface and another. Step-across distance may be the space between a ladder and an adjacent platform.
Devices used to lock sections of extension ladders together. Stops assure that the ladder will not come apart but that there is enough overlap.
A type of portable rung ladder. A straight ladder section may not exceed 30 feet (9 m).
Temporary, elevated platforms. Supported scaffolds are constructed of metal or wooden crosspieces with supports and metal or wooden planking.
Mobile scaffolds that are suspended from ropes or cables. A suspended scaffold is also known as a swinging scaffold.
Tanks serve as storage receptacles. Tanks can hold a wide variety of materials.
A vertical barrier at floor level that is erected along exposed openings, such as a floor opening, platform, or runway. Toeboards prevent objects such as tools and materials from falling from one level to the next.
Floor or ceiling openings that lead to the level above or below. Trapdoors must be guarded.
The surface of a step on a set of stairs. Treads must be slip-resistant according to OSHA standards.
Ladders with wheels and bases for easy movement, often used to access shelving. Trolley ladders are also known as side-rolling ladders.
A wall opening that is a means to provide fresh air to an environment. Ventilation holes assist in the cleaning or re-circulation of contaminated air.
walking and working surface
Any area in the workplace where employees must place their feet to travel from one place to another. Walking and working surfaces often include floors, platforms, stairs, and ladders.
An opening of any width less than 30 inches (762 mm) high but larger than 1 inch (25 mm) in a wall or partition. An example of a wall hole is a ventilation hole.
An opening of any width that is less than 30 in. (762 mm) high but larger than 1 in. (25 mm) in a wall or partition. A common wall hole is a ventilation hole.
An opening that is at least 30 inches (762 mm) high and 18 inches (457 mm) wide in any wall or partition through which persons may fall. A chute is a type of wall opening.
An opening that is at least 30 in. (762 mm) high and 18 in. (457 mm) wide in any wall or partition through which persons may fall. A chute is a type of wall opening.
A part that is being worked on during manufacturing processes. The workpiece may be subjected to cutting, welding, forming, or other operations.