Management Tools: Product and Process Design 275

This class covers lean tools for managing product and process design.

  • Difficulty Intermediate

  • Format Online

  • Number of Lessons 22

  • Language English


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Course Outline
  • Objectives
  • Toyota Production System: A House of Quality
  • Concurrent Engineering
  • Quality Function Deployment
  • Design for Product Life Cycle
  • Design for Manufacture
  • Design for Assembly and Design for Environment
  • Kaizen Events
  • Assessment Tools for Kaizen Events
  • Planning Tools for Kaizen Events
  • Mistake and Error Proofing
  • Poka Yoke Applications and Devices
  • Sensible Automation
  • Kanban
  • Heijunka
  • Quick Changeover and Setup Reduction
  • One Piece Flow
  • Cellular Flow
  • Supplier Development
  • Cross Docking
  • ISO and Other Quality Standards
  • Summary
  • Describe the parts of Toyota's house of quality.
  • Describe concurrent engineering.
  • Describe quality function deployment.
  • Describe the product life cycle.
  • Describe design for manufacture.
  • Distinguish between design for assembly and design for environment.
  • Describe a kaizen event.
  • Describe assessment tools for kaizen events.
  • Describe planning tools for kaizen events.
  • Describe poka yokes.
  • Describe poka yoke applications and devices.
  • Describe jidoka.
  • Describe kanban.
  • Describe heijunka.
  • Describe single minute exchange of dies.
  • Describe one piece flow.
  • Describe cellular flow.
  • Describe supplier development.
  • Describe cross docking.
  • Describe ISO and other quality standards.
Vocabulary Term

American National Standards Institute

An organization that sets norms and conformance standards for products.


A visual management tool that highlights the status of operations in an area and that signals whenever an abnormality occurs.

assessment tool

A device or activity, such as a chart, report, or brainstorming session, that helps the kaizen team determine the state of the process either before or after the event.


Also known as jidoka or automation with human intelligence. Providing machines and operators the ability to detect when an abnormal condition has occurred and immediately stop work.


An activity in which an individual or group rapidly lists ideas, problems, or solutions. Brainstorming can be used in the troubleshooting process to identify possible problem causes.

CAD program

Computer-Aided Design program. A type of computer software that aids in the design and technical drawing of a part or product, including entire buildings.


Also known as a work unit. A specialized group of people, machines, tooling, and materials. Cells are designed to perform in sequence all the tasks needed to produce a part.

CNC machine

Computer Numerical Control machine. A machine that is controlled by a cumputer running programs driven by numerical data.

concurrent engineering

The development of a product in simultaneous or overlapping steps rather than in sequential, linear steps. In concurrent engineering, different teams work on different aspects of product design at the same time.

cross docking

The practice of unloading materials at a dock, matching them to outgoing shipment orders, and immediately loading the items to outgoing trucks or rail cars. Ideally, no items are left in stock for pick up at a later time.

current state

The current condition of a process. A current state flow chart captures all of the details of a manufacturing process just as it is at the moment the chart is produced, including any flaws or errors.


The journey of a part or process from the beginning to the end of a work unit.

design for assembly

A collection of guidelines for easing product assembly by reducing the number of parts required to make the product.

design for environment

A collection of guidelines for considering the environmental impact of the processes and materials required to make a product. DFE means designing for recyclability and minimal harm to the environment.

design for manufacture

A collection of guidelines for manufacturing a product with minimal cost and the fewest possible process steps.

design for x

A collection of guidelines for different aspects of a product's design throughout its life cycle.

error proofing

The practice of installing processes that prevent defects, rather than looking for defects after the fact.

external step

A changeover step that can be achieved while a machine is still running.

Five Whys

A problem solving method in which a person repeatedly asks "Why?" until the root cause of a problem is identified.


A tool used to hold objects in place and clamp them to machines or operating surfaces so the object can be machined or assembled.

future state

The improved condition for a process. A future-state flow chart maps out the manufacturing process as it should be, with all possible flaws and errors eliminated.


Leveling the type and quantity of production over a fixed period of time. Heijunka enables production to efficiently meet customer demands.

heijunka box

A box that is loaded with withdrawal kanbans based on the orders to be completed that day. When leveling the variety of products, each row of the heijunka box represents a different type of product, and each column corresponds to the takt time or pitch for making that type of product.

house of quality

A symbol of the Toyota Production System that represents the core principles of lean.

implementation plan

A document that sets the limits within which the process should operate. This tool lists specific process activities and then states the variables or risks affecting them, as well as their specifications.

internal step

An operation that can and must be performed only when the machine is out of service.

International Organization for Standardization

An organization based in Switzerland that develops and publishes standards for its international membership base.

ISO 14000

The ISO standard for environmental management. ISO 14000 helps companies comply with environmental laws and regulations.

ISO 14001

The ISO standard for administrative requirements for establishing systems for environmental management.

ISO 9000:2000

The most recent ISO standard that lists requirements for the creation and implementation of an effective Quality Management System. ISO 9000:2000 also refers to the section of the standard containing introductory material.


Also known as autonomation, or automation with human intelligence. Providing machines and operators with the ability to detect when an abnormal condition has occurred and immediately stop work.


A device that controls the location or the motion of a tool.

just-in-time delivery

An inventory control system developed by Toyota that delivers products to a customer when the current supply is depleted.

just-in-time production

A system of production that makes and delivers just what is needed, just when it is needed, and just in the amount needed.

kaizen event

A multi-day, hands-on event that targets a particular problem area within a company. Kaizen events result in dramatic changes carried out by a cross-functional team.


A small card or visual tool that signals the movement of parts within a pull system.

lead time

The time it takes one piece to move all the way through a process or value stream, from start to finish.

limit switches

Mechanical sensors that require physical contact to detect the presence or absence of an object. Limit switches are a common type of poka yoke.

linked cells

A group of work cells tied together using kanban. Parts travel between cells in small batches but are fabricated one at a time within individual cells.

market share

The percentage or proportion of the total available market or market segment that is being serviced by a company. Increasing market share is one of the most important objectives used in business.

metal detector

A sensor that detects the presence of metal.

non-value added

Activities that do not contribute to the product or the process and should therefore be eliminated. Non-value added steps are waste.

one piece flow

Making and moving one piece at a time.


A type of sensor that detects the presence of an object through the use of a beam of light. Photosensors often are used as poka yokes.

planning tool

A device, such as a process map, that helps the team determine how to improve the existing process.

poka yoke

A device for detecting and preventing errors.

pressure gauge

Switches that detect a certain amount of force and activate electrical contacts when the force is reached. Pressure switches have different sensing devices that detect pressure changes.

process flow chart

A visual representation of the steps required to manufacture a product.

process map

A flow charting method that uses general symbols and arrows to show the flow of the manufacturing process.

process variables

Changeable values that describe the current state of a process under control.

product changeover

The process of switching from the production of one product to another in a machine by changing tools, dies, molds, fixtures, etc.

product life cycle

The stages of a product's life, from designing the product to disposing of the product.

product life cycle management

The management of product development from a business and engineering perspective. The purpose of PLM is to identify ways to add value to the product by taking the entire life cycle into consideration during the conception and design phase.

production kanban

A kanban that contains all of the basic information about a batch, such as number and weight, plus details about what type of work should be accomplished within the cell.

pull system

A material management system in which parts are not delivered to machines until they are needed. Pull systems are based on actual demand for parts.

QFD matrix

A visual tool used in the early stages of product development to map out the entire planning and production process. The QFD matrix provides a structure for establishing product development goals and determining how to achieve those goals.

quality function deployment

A method for translating customer requirements into engineering specifications when developing new products. The purpose of QFD is to determine the needs of the customer and establish a plan for meeting those needs.

root cause analysis

A study undertaken to find the first or underlying cause of a problem. Root cause analysis involves the collection and study of data to determine a true cause to a problem.


A device that detects the presence or absence of an object, or certain properties of that object, and provides feedback. Common sensor applications include parts detection, counting, and positioning; motion, speed, feed, and jam control; and parts diverting.

setup reduction

A lean effort that uses standardization to reduce the time it takes to perform retooling.

single minute exchange of dies

A process for changing over production equipment from one part number to another in as little time as possible. SMED refers to the target of reducing changeover times to a single digit, or less than 10 minutes.


A joining method that uses heated tin and lead to fuse parts together.

spaghetti diagram

A flow charting method that uses a continuous line to trace the path of a part through all phases of manufacturing. Spaghetti diagrams expose inefficient layouts and large distances traveled between steps.

statistical tool

A device, such as a chart, that compares numerical data. For example, a statistical tool might track the number of errors produced in a three-month span.

supplier development

The practice of working with suppliers to help them become more lean.

supply chain

A complex series of exchanges between multiple companies involved in obtaining raw materials, transforming those materials into a product, and delivering the finished product to the customer.

temperature gauge

A sensor that reacts to different heat intensities and activates electrical contacts when the temperature rises or drops below a set level.

Toyota Production System

The production system developed by Toyota Motor Corporation to provide best quality, lowest cost, and shortest lead time through the elimination of waste.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

A Federal agency that sets safety and labeling standards for food, biological products, drugs, medical devices, and cosmetics. The FDA also oversees public health regulations such as sanitation and disease control.

value stream map

A sophisticated flow charting method that uses symbols, metrics, and arrows to help visualize processes and track performance. This method helps determine which steps of a process add value and which do not.


Any thing or process that does not add value to a product. The goal of lean is to eliminate waste.

withdrawal kanban

A kanban used to signal the movement of parts between cells. It contains just the basic information about the batch such as the number of pieces and weight.

work unit

Also known as a cell. A specialized group of people, machines, tooling, and materials. Cells are designed to perform in sequence all the tasks needed to produce a part.