Lockout/Tagout Procedures 141
This class describes OSHA’s requirements and best practices for preventing accidental machine startup. In order to safely repair or access machinery, operators must be aware of OSHA’s control of hazardous energy procedures, including minimal lockout procedures and safe power restoration. All forms of energy, including electrical, thermal, chemical, and mechanical energy found in manufacturing environments, must be controlled or dissipated according to OSHA’s strict requirements for lockout/tagout. In addition, operators should be able to identify standardized energy control devices, such as lockout and tagout devices and energy blocking mechanisms.
Following proper lockout/tagout procedures is essential to preventing employee injuries and fatalities caused by accidental machine startup. After completing this course, users should be able to recognize common lockout/tagout devices and to identify the main steps in OSHA’s energy control procedures.
Number of Lessons 19
- Forms of Energy
- Energy Isolating Mechanisms
- Review: Energy
- Lockout Devices
- Tagout Devices
- Requirements for Lockout/Tagout Devices
- Review: Energy Control Devices
- Energy Control Program
- Affected and Authorized Employees
- Typical Minimal Lockout Procedure
- Application of Energy Control
- Release from Lockout/Tagout
- Review: Energy Control Procedures
- Exceptions to Lockout/Tagout
- Training Requirements
- Final Review
- Define lockout/tagout.
- Describe forms of energy in manufacturing.
- Describe energy isolating mechanisms.
- Describe lockout devices.
- Describe tagout devices.
- List OSHA’s requirements for lockout/tagout devices.
- Identify methods of blocking.
- Describe the basic requirements of an energy control program.
- Distinguish between affected and authorized employees.
- Describe OSHA’s typical minimal lockout procedure.
- List the steps in a typical Application of Energy Control.
- List the steps to restore power.
- Explain the importance of continuity during LOTO.
- Describe situations where lockout/tagout is not required.
- Describe lockout/tagout training requirements.
An employee who normally works on or near a machine that must be locked out for maintenance. Affected employees can become authorized employees if their duties expand to include tasks related to the lockout.
Application of Energy Control
A section of the energy control program that lists the specific steps of a lockout process. The Application of Energy Control section in the typical minimal lockout procedure can be used to create worksite lockout procedures.
An employee who is qualified to lock out machinery and perform maintenance. Authorized employees use personal lockout devices to keep machines secure during lockout/tagout.
A band of flexible material that is looped around two or more fixed pulleys to transmit motion. Belts can be removed to prevent motion during lockout/tagout.
The process of safely removing liquid or gas from a closed system. Bleeding is a blocking method.
The use of physical or mechanical barriers or restraints to prevent accidental machine startup or release of energy. Blocking is a safety measure used along with lockout/tagout during machine maintenance.
Any device used to lock a machine component in place. Blocks are used when a machine component can still move even if it is not energized.
cable lockout devices
A cord that is designed to tighten and lock around an energy isolating mechanism. Cable lockout devices can tie down equipment that is difficult to lock another way, such as valves or panel doors.
A long, thin plastic or nylon fastening device that locks when the point on one end is threaded through the loop on the other. Cable ties, or zip ties, can be used to attach tagout devices.
An electrical device that stores energy and releases it when needed. Capacitors should be grounded during maintenance to avoid injury from electrical shock.
Capable of burning or destroying living tissue through chemical processes. Many common workplace chemicals are caustic.
A form of power created by the reaction between two or more substances. Chemical energy is released by many substances, including batteries and gasoline, and can cause burns.
A safety device that detects overcurrent in a circuit. Circuit breakers can be opened manually to disconnect power from a circuit.
The practice of starting and finishing lockout/tagout procedures in one session. Continuity also requires the safe transfer of responsibility between authorized employees during personnel changes.
Control of Hazardous Energy
The proper title for OSHA's lockout/tagout safety standard. The Control of Hazardous Energy standard protects employees by requiring practices and procedures that prevent accidental machine startup for machines that are undergoing maintenance.
A controlled path for electricity. Electrical circuits must be disconnected or disrupted during lockout/tagout.
A form of power created by the movement of electrons. Electrical energy, or electricity, can cause electric shock and burns.
electrical lockout devices
A device that holds or blocks an electrical energy isolating mechanism. Electrical lockout devices include circuit breaker clamps, electrical plug covers, and switch or button covers.
A state at which a system has stored energy or an active power supply. Energized systems can have electrical, mechanical, thermal, hydraulic, or pneumatic energy.
The ability to do work. Energy comes in many forms, including electrical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical.
energy control program
A written procedure that explains how to control hazardous energy in a specific workplace. Energy control programs are required by OSHA and developed by individual employers to cover their workplaces.
energy isolation mechanisms
A mechanical device that physically controls the transmission or release of energy. Energy isolation mechanisms include switches, circuit breakers, and valves.
A device that holds objects together or locates them in relation to one another. Common fasteners include screws, rivets, and zip or cable ties.
A fluid without a fixed volume that has the ability to flow and fill the space it occupies. Gases are used in pneumatic systems.
The force which draws and holds things to the surface of the earth. Gravity can pull machine components downward even when the machine is shut off.
A means of providing a safe path for electricity should it stray from its intended path. Grounding substantially reduces the risk of electrical shock.
group lockout device
An item that restrains an energy isolating mechanism using multiple padlocks. Group lockout devices must be used when multiple personnel are servicing the same machine.
A hinged metal plate with a metal loop that is secured by a pin or padlock. A hasp may be built into an energy isolating mechanism or added during lockout/tagout.
A source of danger or possible injury. Hazards can be physical hazards like falling objects or health hazards like chemical exposures.
hot tap operations
A process during which a connection is made to existing piping or pressure vessels without interrupting or emptying it. Hot tap operations require alternative safety procedures and equipment from lockout/tagout.
A form of power created by the compressive force or movement of a liquid in a confined area. Hydraulic energy can drop heavy machine components or cause explosions if it is released suddenly.
Physically or manually blocked or disconnected so that it cannot accidentally start up or release energy. Authorized employees must verify that equipment is isolated during the Application of Energy Control.
A component of mechanical energy that exists due to an object's motion. Kinetic energy is often harnessed, converted to other types of usable energy, or transferred to other objects.
A fluid with a fixed volume that has the ability to flow and take the shape of its container. Liquids like water and oil are used in hydraulic systems.
lockable valve covers
A device that closes over a valve and can be locked shut. Lockable valve covers prevent valves from being accidentally opened or turned ON.
A state of being isolated from power sources and de-energized of stored energy. OSHA requires employees to follow strict safety procedures for a machine to be locked out.
A device, such as a lock and key or combination lock, used to hold an energy isolating mechanism in a safe position and prevent equipment or machinery from being energized. A lockout device can also be used to lock moving components of a mechanical system in place.
LOTO. A method of protecting employees by preventing accidental machine startup through proper locking and labeling of machines during maintenance. Lockout/tagout is the common term for OSHA's Control of Hazardous Energy Standard.
A safety device that holds an energy isolating device in the safe or OFF position or covers a switch so that it is inaccessible. Locks are typically used with tags.
Lockout/tagout. A method of protecting employees by preventing accidental machine startup through proper locking and labeling of machines during maintenance. LOTO is the common term for OSHA's Control of Hazardous Energy Standard.
A rigid shield or cover that encloses hazardous areas on a machine. Machine guards prevent accidental machine contact with body parts and prevent debris, such as chips, from exiting the machine.
Any activity that contributes to the care and upkeep of machines or equipment. Maintenance processes often require equipment to be locked out.
A combination of kinetic and potential energy resulting from the force of gravity or the movement or release of a machine component, such as a spring, clamp, or wheel. Mechanical energy can cause components to fall, roll, move, or break unexpectedly.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA. A federal agency under the United States Department of Labor that ensures safe working conditions and helps employers reduce injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. The Occupational Health and Safety Administration has developed regulations that dictate when and how to implement Control of Hazardous Energy, or lockout/tagout, procedures.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A federal agency under the United States Department of Labor that ensures safe working conditions and helps employers reduce injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. OSHA has developed regulations that dictate when and how to implement Control of Hazardous Energy, or lockout/tagout, procedures.
An employee who may encounter a locked-out machine. Other employees include visitors or contractors who work in an area with an energy control procedure in place.
An inspection to ensure that lockout/tagout policies, procedures, and training are adequate for a worksite's hazardous energy control needs. Periodic inspections must be conducted at least annually by an authorized employee who is not involved with the process being inspected.
A form of power created by the compressive force or movement of a gas in a confined area. Pneumatic energy can drop heavy machine components or cause explosions if it is released suddenly.
point of operation
The area where work is performed, often where the tool comes into contact with the workpiece. The point of operation is typically the most hazardous area of the machine and should be protected by primary safeguarding methods.
A component of mechanical energy that exists as stored energy resulting from an object's position or internal pressure. Potential energy often exists in machines that have been turned off and becomes kinetic energy when it is released.
Physical force applied continuously to an object. Too much pressure can damage machines and workpieces and present danger to operators.
The appearance of letters on the tag or device, including style, color, and size. OSHA requires that lockout/tagout devices have a standard print format.
A process during which one or more substances are changed due to the introduction of another substance. A chemical reaction can cause burns and release energy.
Release from Lockout/Tagout
A section of the energy control program that lists the specific steps to restore power after a lockout process. The Release from Lockout/Tagout section in the typical minimal lockout procedure can be used to create worksite power restoration procedures.
Any activity besides maintenance that requires employees to access machines or equipment, including cleaning, cosmetic improvements, and inspection. Service processes often require equipment to be locked out.
An established policy on a particular practice or method. OSHA standards have the same power as law, and non-compliance can result in fines and other penalties.
A prominent visual warning device that can be securely attached to a machine or power source during repair or maintenance. Tagout devices alert employees that equipment is not to be operated until the tag is removed.
A prominent visual warning device that can be securely attached to a machine or power source during repair or maintenance. Tags alert employees that equipment is not to be operated until the tag is removed.
A pulling force that attempts to stretch or elongate an object. Tension that releases suddenly can cause components to break or snap.
A form of power that produces heat. Thermal energy can cause burns and create fire hazards.
Relating to a person or group that is not an owner, employer, or regular employee of a particular business. Third-party groups include contractors, vendors, and visitors who are employed by another organization and perform work for a business on a contract or as-needed basis.
typical minimal lockout procedure
The essential steps required to lock out a specific machine. OSHA provides the typical minimal lockout procedure for employers to create energy control programs that satisfy the lockout/tagout standard.
A joining process that uses heat, friction, or a combination of methods to fuse two materials together permanently. Welding uses thermal energy.
zero energy state
A condition of control that is achieved when all energy inside a machine has been blocked or neutralized. Zero energy states prevent accidental startup and unexpected movement during lockout/tagout and blocking.
A long, thin plastic or nylon fastening device that locks when the point on one end is threaded through the loop on the other. Zip ties, or cable ties, can be used to attach tagout devices.