Laser Cutting Overview 261
Laser Cutting Overview 261 introduces the types of lasers used for laser cutting. This class describes the properties of cutting lasers, optical components used with lasers, and the major lasing mediums used in industrial cutting applications. These mediums include gases, solids, fibers, and semiconductors. The power and consistency of most of these lasers can be controlled through various methods of pumping and laser pulsing.
Effective laser cutting requires an awareness of how laser components and properties influence laser behavior. After completing this course, users will understand basic laser optics and laser components. They will also be able to distinguish between common lasing mediums and to identify ways to manipulate beams through pulsing and pumping.
Number of Lessons 14
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- Introduction to Laser Cutting
- Properties of Laser Light
- Laser Resonators
- Laser Cutting Equipment
- Review: Laser Light and Equipment
- Gas Lasers
- Solid-State Lasers
- Semiconductor Lasers
- Review: Lasing Mediums
- Laser Pumping
- Pulsed Lasers
- Pulsing Methods
- Waterjet Lasers
- Final Review
- Describe laser cutting.
- Describe the properties of laser light.
- Describe laser resonators.
- Describe common laser cutting equipment.
- Describe gas lasers.
- Describe solid-state lasers.
- Describe semiconductor lasers.
- Describe methods of laser pumping.
- Describe pulsed lasers.
- Describe methods of pulsing lasers.
- Describe waterjet lasers.
The range of light wavelengths absorbed by a material. The absorption spectrum of a lasing medium should include the wavelength of an external pumping laser.
A device that uses sound waves to diffract or shift the frequency of light waves. Acousto-optic modulators are one type of device used as a gate in Q-switching and mode-locking.
A method of mode-locking that uses an acousto-optic modulator. Active mode-locking is similar to Q-switching because the modulator is used to control the release of photons from the resonator.
A common lightweight, silver-white metal. Aluminum resists corrosion and is a good conductor of electrical and thermal energy, but its reflective surface can make it difficult to machine with lasers.
A metal made by combining aluminum with one or more other metals to enhance its properties. Aluminum compounds are frequently dissolved with gallium arsenide for use in industrial semiconductor cutting lasers.
A measure of intensity, usually represented by the maximum height of a wave. The amplitude of multiple light waves are combined during constructive interference to produce one wave with the greatest possible amplitude and, therefore, a greater peak power.
An electric light source that produces extremely intense, sustained light when a current passes between electrodes surrounded by gas. Arc lamps are often used in optical pumping.
A colorless, odorless non-reactive gas. Argon is sometimes used an assist gas in laser cutting.
A gas used during the laser cutting process to remove molten metal from a cut. Assist gases include compressed air; non-reactive gases like nitrogen, argon, and helium; and reactive gases like oxygen.
The smallest distinguishable unit of a material that maintains that material's characteristics. Atoms include protons, neutrons, and electrons.
A measure of the energy in a pulsed laser over time. Average power is useful for evaluating the efficiency of pulsed lasers, especially compared to continuous lasers, but does not give information about peak power, pulse duration, or pulse period.
An optical device with a semi-transparent mirror that divides a beam of light in two. Beam splitters allow some light to pass directly through while sending the rest of the light in another direction.
beam traveling systems
A laser cutting system in which a moving focus head travels above a stationary workpiece. Beam traveling systems are also called flying optics systems or moving optics systems.
A rough, sharp edge remaining on a part after cutting. Burrs rarely form on the kerf of workpieces cut with a waterjet laser.
CO2. A heavy, colorless, odorless gas composed of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide is one of the most common lasing mediums for gas lasers.
carbon dioxide lasers
CO2 lasers. A type of gas laser that uses carbon dioxide with small amounts of helium and nitrogen as a lasing medium. Carbon dioxide lasers are highly efficient and operate as continuous wave lasers.
A hard, brittle material that can withstand high temperatures and resist corrosion. Ceramics include traditional materials such as brick and clay as well as advanced ceramics used in abrasives and cutting tools.
A type of gas laser that is powered by a chemical reaction. Chemical lasers are rare in industrial cutting applications.
A process during which one or more substances are changed due to the introduction of another substance. Chemical reactions can be used to achieve laser pumping.
Computer numerical control. The use of computers and special programs to automatically carry out various machine operations. CNC systems for laser cutting commonly use hybrid, flying optics, and fixed optics systems.
Moving in unison with one another. Coherent light is emitted at the same rate and with the same frequency.
Aligned in parallel with one another. Collimated light does not diverge or converge across distances, or does so only minimally.
An optical device that creates a stable light source that does not disperse quickly. A collimator combines individual beams in a diode stack laser to create a single, more powerful laser beam.
combination traveling systems
A laser cutting system in which both the focus head and workpiece travel in at least one direction. Combination traveling systems are also called hybrid systems.
A material made by combining two or more of the following groups: metals, polymers, and ceramics. Composite materials are bonded together without losing their individual properties or characteristics.
computer numerical control
CNC. The use of computers and special programs to automatically carry out various machine operations. Computer numerical control systems for laser cutting commonly use hybrid, flying optics, and fixed optics systems.
A material that acts as a path for the flow of electricity. Conductors are often metals.
The combination of two or more wave amplitudes. Constructive interference is used to align multiple light waves and produce a greater peak power in mode-locked pulsed lasers.
CW. A laser beam that is produced continuously rather than as a series of pulses. Continuous wave lasers provide constant power.
A curved surface or part feature that is cut into a workpiece. Laser cutters can easily create contours.
A fluid used to decrease the temperature around the resonator. The most common coolant for lasers is purified water.
A component of waterjet lasers where a laser beam meets a high-pressure stream of water. The coupling unit, or water chamber, allows laser light in through the window and out through the nozzle.
A solid material with atoms arranged in a highly organized and repeating structure. A crystal can be used to produce, alter, and focus light in lasers.
The flow of electricity in a circuit. Current is produced by the movement of electrons.
The part of a laser focus head that aims the laser and any assist gases at the workpiece. The cutting nozzle's diameter determines the amount of gas flowing from the head and can affect the radius of the laser beam.
Continuous wave. A laser beam that is produced continuously rather than as a series of pulses. CW lasers provide constant power.
A semiconductor device that allows electricity to produce light by flowing in only one direction. A diode produces photons as electrons and holes flow through it.
A special type of solid-state laser that produces a beam by discharging electrical current through a p-n junction diode. Diode lasers, which are sometimes called semiconductor lasers or injection lasers, are usually smaller and more precise and powerful than other lasers.
A type of electrical pumping that supplies electricity to an external semiconductor laser to produce an excited state in a lasing medium. Diode pumping can increase the power of solid-state and gas lasers more than other pumping methods.
A group of p-n junction diodes layered on top of one another to generate a high-powered beam. Diode stacks produce a separate wavelength from each diode, which can be used separately or combined by a collimator.
Moving toward a particular location. Directional light is emitted as a relatively narrow beam in one specific direction.
The separation of light into its different colors. Dispersion of laser light can be prevented by prisms.
A rare-earth element that is added in trace amounts to a host material. Dopants are impurities that increase the host material's excitability and the power of a laser.
Enriched with a rare-earth element that is added in trace amounts to a host material. Doped lasing mediums use impurities to increase the host material's excitability and the power of a laser.
A laser that does not use a stream of water to aid in cutting. Dry lasers use assist gases to remove molten material from the cut and include most solid-state, gas, and semiconductor lasers.
A type of laser that uses chemical dyes as a lasing medium. Dye lasers can be solid-state or liquid lasers, depending on the state of the dye.
The use of an externally supplied electrical current to excite and amplify the energy of a lasing medium. Electrical pumping can supply electricity directly to a lasing medium or to an external semiconductor laser.
An area of force that is generated by the motion of an electrical charge. Electromagnetic fields can be used to achieve laser pumping.
Energy emitted in the form of waves or particles that induces a temperature change when absorbed by an object. Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, x-rays, visible light, and infrared rays.
A negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom. Electrons moving between atoms causes the flow of electricity.
A type of gas laser that is powered by a specific type of chemical reaction that involves an electrically excited molecule called an excimer. Excimer lasers are rare in industrial cutting applications.
external laser pumping
A type of optical pumping that supplies light energy from a secondary laser to produce an excited state in a lasing medium. External laser pumping typically uses a ring laser as the secondary laser.
fs. A unit used to measure time that is equal to one quadrillionth of a second. Femtoseconds are used to measure the pulse duration of optical fiber and ultrafast mode-locked lasers.
A tuning device that selectively transmits light of certain wavelengths. Filters are usually glass or plastic panes inside the laser.
A final machining process that achieves the desired surface finish and tolerance for a part or component. Finishing is often performed on grinders or with cutting tools.
fixed optics systems
A laser cutting system in which a moving workpiece travels beneath a stationary focus head. Fixed optics systems are also called workpiece traveling systems.
A type of arc lamp that consists of a tube that is designed to produce extremely intense light for short durations of time. Flashlamps are often used in optical pumping.
flying optics systems
A laser cutting system in which a moving focus head travels above a stationary workpiece. Flying optics systems are also called beam traveling systems or moving optics systems.
A measure of how strongly an optical system focuses or defuses light. Focal length is usually expressed as a relationship of the distance from the lens to the center of the focal spot.
The point at which light waves meet after reflection or refraction. Focal points, or focal spots, are often created by a lens or a series of lenses.
The point at which light waves meet after reflection or refraction. Focal spots, or focal points, are often created by a lens or a series of lenses.
The mechanical assembly that contains the focusing lens, the cutting nozzle, and other components that control and project a laser beam. The focus head may be stationary or may move above the workpiece, depending on the type of laser cutting system.
Made to meet at a single, concentrated point. Focused laser light appears as a small spot, or focal point, on a workpiece.
A curved, transparent piece of material used to concentrate light waves to create a focal point. The focusing lens collimates the beam and adjusts its radius as it leaves the focus head.
A measurement of the number of times a waveform repeats in one second. Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz).
A liquid, gas, or solid material that produces a specific wavelength of light when it is exposed to and absorbs energy. Different gain mediums, or lasing mediums, produce different wavelengths of light.
A method of laser pulsing that uses a noncontinuous power source to pump a laser. Gain switching, or pulse pumping, often uses a pulsed external laser or an arc lamp that is turned off at regular intervals.
gas dynamic pumping
The use of rapid temperature changes to excite and amplify the energy of gas lasing mediums. Gas dynamic pumping causes the gas particles in gas lasing mediums to rapidly expand when exposed to heat and to give off photons as they cool.
A type of laser that produces a laser beam by discharging electrical current though a gas lasing medium. Gas lasers include carbon dioxide lasers, helium lasers, and helium-neon lasers.
A fluid without a fixed volume that has the ability to flow and fill the space it occupies. Gases like carbon dioxide are a common type of lasing medium in cutting lasers.
GW. A unit used to measure electrical power that is equal to one billion watts. Gigawatts are used to measure the power generated by Q-switched and mode-locked pulsed lasers.
HAZs. The area around a cut that is impacted by the heat of the cutting process. The heat-affected zone does not melt, but its mechanical properties are altered by the heat of cutting.
A light, colorless, nonflammable inert gas that is much lighter than air. Helium may be used as a lasing medium on its own or as an additive in carbon dioxide lasers.
A gas mixture made by combining helium with neon. Helium-neon may be used on its own or as an additive in carbon dioxide lasers.
An extra opening in p-type semiconductor material that permits the movement of valence electrons. Holes play an integral role in conducting current.
The most prevalent substance in a lasing medium. Host materials are usually enhanced, or doped, to increase lasing power.
The case that makes up the body of the laser and contains the resonator and other optical components. Laser housing is typically made from metal or plastic.
A method of mode-locking that uses both an acousto-optic modulator and a saturable absorber. Hybrid mode-locking combines aspects of both active and passive mode-locking.
A laser cutting system in which both the focus head and workpiece travel in at least one direction. Hybrid optics systems are also called combination traveling systems.
A metal made by combining indium with one or more other metals to enhance its properties. Indium compounds with gallium arsenide phosphide are frequently used in industrial semiconductor cutting lasers.
IR. A wavelength of light that is beyond, or longer than, red on the visible light spectrum. Infrared light is produced by some cutting lasers.
A special type of solid-state laser that produces a beam by discharging electrical current through a p-n junction diode. Injection lasers, which are sometimes called diode lasers or semiconductor lasers, are usually smaller and more precise and powerful than other lasers.
A material that disrupts, inhibits, or prevents the flow of electricity. Insulators include rubber and plastic.
A relationship between two values in which one value increases as the other value decreases or decreases as the other value increases. A laser's wavelength is inversely proportional to its power because power decreases as wavelength increases.
A type of gas laser that is powered by gases that have an electrical charge. Ion lasers like argon-iron are rare in industrial cutting applications.
Infrared. A wavelength of light that is beyond, or longer than, red on the visible light spectrum. Infrared light is produced by some cutting lasers.
A cut or opening created in a workpiece during a thermal cutting operation like laser cutting. Kerf sometimes refers to the width of a cut or the width of the material removed by a cutting process.
A device that generates an intense beam of coherent, collimated, monochromatic light that can be precisely aimed and controlled. Lasers are used for a wide array of manufacturing processes including metal cutting.
A thermal cutting process that uses a focused stream of coherent, collimated, monochromatic light to sever a workpiece. Laser cutting is usually an automated process and can produce intricate, continuous cuts.
A liquid, gas, or solid material that produces a specific wavelength of light when it is exposed to and absorbs energy. Different lasing mediums, or gain mediums, produce different wavelengths of light.
A type of electromagnetic radiation, usually referring to wavelengths of the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum. Light can be studied as both particles, or photons, and waves.
A fluid with a fixed volume that has the ability to flow and take the shape of its container. Liquids like dyes are rarely used as lasing mediums in cutting lasers.
MW. A unit used to measure electrical power that is equal to one million watts. Diode stack lasers are capable of producing megawatts of power.
melt and blow
A laser cutting method that creates a kerf by transforming part a solid workpiece into liquid and removes the molten material from the cut with forced gases. Melt and blow processes are often used to cut metals.
A type of gas laser that is powered by microscopic metal particles. Metal-vapor lasers are rare in industrial cutting applications.
A smooth piece of glass that reflects light. Mirrors are used to create beams by intensifying light in laser resonators.
A method of laser pulsing that aligns random variations in light waves to produce a single wave with the greatest amplitude and peak power. Mode-locking produces ultrafast pulses with gigawatts of power.
A tuning device that modifies light. Modulators can alter the power or intensity of the laser.
Consisting of only one wavelength, or color. Monochromatic light can be amplified into a powerful laser beam.
Moving optics systems
A laser cutting system in which a moving focus head travels above a stationary workpiece. Moving optics systems are also called beam traveling systems or flying optics systems.
nm. A unit used to measure distance that is equal to one billionth of a meter. The nanometer unit is used to measure light wavelengths.
ns. A unit used to measure time that is equal to one billionth of a second. Most pulsed lasers have a pulse period that lasts between 0.5 and 500 nanoseconds.
Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet lasers. A solid-state laser that uses a crystal doped with neodymium to produce light. Nd:YAG lasers are some of the most common solid-state cutting lasers.
Nd. A silvery-white, rare-earth metal. Neodymium is a common metal lasing medium in solid-state lasers.
Nd laser. A solid-state laser that uses a neodymium metal rod to produce light. Neodymium lasers are a common type of solid-state cutting lasers.
neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet lasers
Nd:YAG lasers. A solid-state laser that uses a crystal doped with neodymium to produce light. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet lasers are some of the most common solid-state cutting lasers.
A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that naturally exists in the atmosphere and is non-reactive. Nitrogen is a common assist gas for laser cutting, and it can also be used as a lasing medium or to improve the efficiency of CO2 lasers.
Nanometer. A unit used to measure distance that is equal to one billionth of a meter. The nm unit is used to measure light wavelengths.
A gas that does not chemically react with the substance it contacts. Non-reactive gases, or inert gases, include nitrogen, helium, and argon.
A semiconductor that causes current to flow by creating extra electrons that are easily excited into movement. An n-type and a p-type semiconductor are combined to create p-n junction diodes.
A nuclear reaction that releases energy when the nucleus of one particle splits spontaneously or collides with another particle. Nuclear fission can be used to achieve laser pumping.
An element of a laser system that produces, redirects, intensifies, or alters light. Optical components include lenses, resonators, and mirrors.
optical fiber lasers
A type of solid-state laser that uses thin, flexible strands of glass or plastic as a lasing medium. Optical fiber lasers, or fiber lasers, produce more power and are more reliable than other solid-state lasers.
A thin, flexible strand of glass or plastic used to transport light. Optical fibers are used as a lasing medium in optical fiber lasers.
Light that escapes from a laser before it forms a beam. Optical losses occur in all lasers, but they can be minimized by optical components.
The use of an externally supplied light to excite and amplify the energy of the lasing medium. Optical pumping can use a variety of light sources including flashlamps, arc lamps, and laser diodes.
A device that opens and closes to physically control the passage of light. Optical shutters are one type of device used as a gate in Q-switching.
A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that naturally exists in the atmosphere and is reactive. Oxygen is a common assist gas for laser cutting.
Equidistant at all points. Parallel light waves never intersect with each other.
partially reflective mirror
A mirror at the end of a resonator that allows light to pass through when it reaches a certain amount of energy. Partially reflective mirrors trap photons in the resonator until they move fast enough to produce a laser beam.
A method of mode-locking that uses a saturable absorber. Passive mode-locking absorbs low-energy light while allowing large spikes in light energy to escape from the resonator.
The greatest amount of energy produced by a pulsed laser. The peak power of pulsed lasers can be 500 times greater than the power of continuous wave (CW) lasers.
A particle of light energy. Photons are reflected back and forth within the resonator until they gain enough energy to escape as intense light beams.
ps. A unit used to measure time that is equal to one trillionth of a second. Picoseconds are used to measure the pulse duration of ultrafast mode-locked lasers.
p-n junction diode
A semiconductor diode that combines a p-type and an n-type diode. The p-n junction diode produces electricity as electrons flow from the n-type diode and combine with holes on the p-type diode.
A lightweight material that generally has high corrosion resistance, a high strength-to-weight ratio, and a low melting point. Polymers, or plastics, are some of the most common manufacturing materials.
A specially-shaped piece of polished glass or other transparent material. Prisms can be used to tune or alter laser light.
A defining characteristic of a material. Properties are often categorized as either mechanical properties, which describe how a material responds to external forces, or physical properties, which describe basic qualities of the material.
A semiconductor that causes current to flow by creating holes that enable the movement of valence electrons. A p-type and an n-type semiconductor are combined to create p-n junction diodes .
The length of time required for a pulsed laser to reach and emit peak power during each period. When pulse duration, or pulse width, increases, average power also increases as long as the pulse period remains the same.
The number of pulse periods that occur in one second. As pulse frequency, or repetition rate, increases, so does average power.
The interval of time between the beginning of one pulse and the beginning of the next pulse. During the pulse period, the power rises from zero to peak power, and then drops back to zero until the next period begins.
A method of laser pulsing that uses a noncontinuous power source to pump a laser. Pulse pumping, or gain switching, often uses a pulsed external laser or an arc lamp that is turned off at regular intervals.
A repetitive series of pulses. Pulse trains can be used to calculate pulse frequency and average power of a pulsed laser.
The length of time laser light is sustained during a period. When pulse width, or pulse duration, increases, average power also increases as long as the pulse period remains the same.
A laser beam that is emitted as repeating bursts of energy. Pulsed lasers can produce peak powers up to 500 times higher than the power of continuous wave (CW) lasers, but peak power only lasts for very short periods of time.
Supplying additional power or light to excite and amplify the lasing medium's energy. Pumping methods include optical methods like external laser pumping and electrical pumping methods like diode pumping.
Quality-switching. A method of laser pulsing that uses a gate such as a shutter or modulator to control when photons leave the resonator. Q-switching produces a stronger laser by forcing photons to build up more energy and pressure in the resonator.
A measurement of the distance between the outer edge of a laser beam and its center. The radius of a laser beam can be adjusted by using the focusing lens and components in the focus head.
One of seventeen known chemical elements found in the earth's crust and various minerals. Rare-earth elements like neodymium are common dopants in solid-state lasers.
A gas that chemically reacts with the substance it contacts. Reactive gases include oxygen.
Sent backward in the opposite direction. Light is reflected by mirrors in laser resonators.
A property of an object that redirects a portion of light away from its surface. Reflective surfaces can be cut most efficiently with optical fiber lasers.
The number of pulse periods that occur in one second. As repetition rate, or pulse frequency, increases, so does average power.
A tube that contains the lasing medium and, usually, two reflecting mirrors. The mirrors in the resonant cavity, or resonator, reflect light and amplify it into a powerful laser beam.
A tube that contains the lasing medium and, usually, two reflecting mirrors. The mirrors in the resonator, or resonant cavity, reflect light and amplify it into a powerful laser beam.
A laser that uses three mirrors to shape the beam into a triangle. Ring lasers are used as secondary lasers that surround the resonators of primary lasers in external laser pumping.
A mechanical device that can be programmed to perform a variety of complicated, repetitive tasks. Robots are used to automate manufacturing processes.
A type of filter that traps low-energy light while allowing large spikes in light energy to leave the resonator. Saturable absorbers are used in passive and hybrid mode-locking.
A special type of solid-state laser that produces a beam by discharging electrical current through a p-n junction diode. Semiconductor lasers, which are sometimes called diode lasers or injection lasers, are usually smaller and more precise and powerful than other lasers.
A material that usually has little or no conductivity but has been doped to create a conductor. Semiconductors that are used in powerful solid-state cutting lasers are usually aluminum alloys.
A basic, non-flowing form of a substance. Solids like crystals and metal rods are common types of lasing mediums in cutting lasers.
A type of laser that produces a laser beam by discharging electrical current though solid lasing mediums like metal rods and crystals to produce light. Solid-state lasers include neodymium, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, and optical fiber lasers.
A device that traps light within the resonator until it gains a specific amount of energy that is greater than what would normally be required to escape the resonator through the partially reflective mirror. Switches can be optoelectrical, acousto-optic, or mechanical.
A conductive device within a circuit to which other components can be attached. Terminals have a negative or positive charge.
A cutting process that uses heat to remove material from a workpiece. Thermal cutting processes include laser cutting, oxyfuel cutting, and plasma cutting.
A form of power that produces heat. Thermal energy is used to cut materials in thermal cutting processes like laser cutting and plasma cutting.
Assorted tools used in various manufacturing processes. Tooling needs can be streamlined or reduced by using laser cutters.
total internal reflection
The complete reflection of light within a medium like water. Total internal reflection maintains the quality of the beam in waterjet lasers.
traditional cutting methods
The group of machining operations that use single- or multi-point tools to remove material in the form of chips. Traditional cutting methods include milling and turning.
Lasers with extremely short pulse durations that are sometimes considered quasi-continuous wave lasers. Ultrafast lasers produce intense bursts of high energy and have pulse durations that are measured in picoseconds or femtoseconds.
UV. A potentially harmful wavelength of light that is below, or shorter than, violet on the visible light spectrum. Ultraviolet light is produced by some cutting lasers.
A laser cutting method that creates a kerf by rapidly transforming part of a solid workpiece into liquid, then gas. Vaporization processes are often used to cut non-melting materials like carbon or thermoset plastics.
visible light spectrum
The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to humans. The visible light spectrum includes light wavelengths from 400 nm to 720 nm and is usually described by color.
A measure of the optical energy output of a laser system versus the total electrical energy supplied to it. Wall-plug efficiency is expressed as a percentage.
A component of waterjet lasers where a laser beam meets a high-pressure stream of water. The water chamber, or coupling unit, allows laser light in through the window and out through the nozzle.
A pulsed laser that uses a high-pressure stream of water to aid in cutting. The stream of water in water-guided lasers, which are also called waterjet or wet lasers, acts as a coolant, removes molten material from the cut, and improves laser focus by guiding it through the water.
A pulsed laser that uses a high-pressure stream of water to aid in cutting. The stream of water in waterjet lasers, which are also called water-guided lasers or wet lasers, acts as a coolant, removes molten material from the cut, and improves laser focus by guiding it through the water.
A property that directs a particle wave, such as light, in a desired direction. Waveguide properties enable optical fiber lasers to create a consistent, high-quality laser beam.
The distance between separate peaks of a light wave, which determines whether or not it is visible to the human eye. The wavelength of laser light affects its color, frequency, and power.
A joining process that permanently bonds two separate components together. Laser cutting systems prevent the edges of a kerf from welding back together by forcing melted material out of the kerf with gas.
A pulsed laser that uses a high-pressure stream of water to aid in cutting. The stream of water in wet lasers, which are also called water-guided lasers or waterjet lasers, acts as a coolant, removes molten material from the cut, and improves laser focus by guiding it through the water.
The opening entrance of a waterjet laser's coupling unit. The window allows laser light to enter the coupling unit.
A part undergoing some type of manufacturing process. A workpiece may be subject to cutting, welding, forming, or other operations.
workpiece traveling systems
A laser cutting system in which a moving workpiece travels beneath a stationary focus head. Workpiece traveling systems are also called fixed optics systems.
An electromagnetic wave emitted by electrons on the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum. X-rays can be used to achieve laser pumping.