Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

Introduction to Smart Manufacturing 100

This class introduces the concepts and technologies of smart manufacturing and Industry 4.0. It provides an overview of sensors, smart devices, data, and how that data is managed and analyzed to evolve manufacturing operations. It also explores how technology, including digital twins and the digital thread, impacts workplace personnel and processes across the supply chain.

Interoperability and communication between devices and processes is growing in scope and importance across the manufacturing industry. After completing this class, users will understand the basics and management of the technologies, data, and processes that drive smart manufacturing and Industry 4.0.

  • Difficulty Beginner

  • Format Online

  • Number of Lessons 13

  • Language English

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Course Outline
  • Introduction to Smart Manufacturing
  • Industry Evolution
  • Sensors and Data Capture
  • Information Modeling
  • Data Visualization
  • Smart Manufacturing, Data, and Visualization Review
  • Smart Data and Process Control
  • AI-Based Analytics and Optimization
  • Smart Manufacturing and Enterprise Systems
  • Smart Manufacturing Execution Systems
  • Digital Thread and Smart Manufacturing
  • Digital Twin and Smart Manufacturing
  • Final Smart Manufacturing Review
Objectives
  • Define smart manufacturing and interoperability.
  • Contrast Industry 4.0 with Industry 3.0.
  • Describe data capture methods for smart manufacturing.
  • Describe how information modeling is used in smart manufacturing.
  • Describe how data visualization is used in smart manufacturing.
  • Describe the cycle of data capture, data analysis, and process control in smart manufacturing.
  • Describe how AI can be used to optimize data collection and analysis.
  • Describe enterprise system software and its role in smart manufacturing.
  • Describe the role of manufacturing execution systems and other software in smart manufacturing.
  • Describe the role of digital threads in smart manufacturing.
  • Describe the role of digital twins in smart manufacturing.
Glossary
Vocabulary Term
Definition

3D

Three-dimensional. Having a length, depth, and width. Creating 3D digital models of a part is the first stage of part design.

additive manufacturing

AM. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object based on a three-dimensional computer model. Additive manufacturing methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.

aggregated

Collected and linked into a group. Aggregated data helps make real-time, automated process decisions.

AI

Artificial intelligence. A computer program with algorithms that function as behavioral rules, allowing a machine or computer to imitate intelligent human behavior. AI is able to discern and learn from its experiences in order to make optimized decisions during an operation or for subsequent processes.

algorithms

A logical and mathematical expression designed to systematically solve a problem. Algorithms are coded into software to form the rules by which artificial intelligence functions.

application programming interfaces

APIs. A set of programmed instructions, definitions, and standards that define how one piece of software interacts with other software. An open application programming interface means that anyone can write programs that can interact with that interface.

artificial intelligence

AI. A computer program with algorithms that function as behavioral rules, allowing a machine or computer to imitate intelligent human behavior. Artificial intelligence is able to discern and learn from its experiences in order to make optimized decisions during an operation or for subsequent processes.

augmented reality

AR. A technology that superimposes a computer-generated image onto a view of the real world. Augmented reality may be used to train and guide employees through processes using virtual elements.

autonomous

Self-governing. Autonomous systems can be configured to make decisions independent of human interaction.

bar charts

A chart that represents data with rectangular shapes whose heights or lengths are proportional to different values. Bar charts are common data visualization tools.

CESMII-The Smart Manufacturing Institute

A non-profit organization focused on the advancement of smart manufacturing. CESMII provides education, workforce development, networking, and research for smart manufacturing and digital technology.

citizen data scientist

An individual who utilizes data science and visualization tools in their job but whose training and primary role is not that of a data scientist or information technology expert. Citizen data scientists are on the rise due to smart manufacturing.

class diagrams

A type of model that describes the structure of a system and the attributes, operations, and relationships of the system's classes. Class diagrams are a common type of information model.

CNC

Computer numerical control. The use of computers and special programs to automatically carry out various machine operations. CNC machines may be equipped with smart technology.

computer numerical control

CNC. The use of computers and special programs to automatically carry out various machine operations. Computer numerical control machines may be equipped with smart technology.

computer-aided design

CAD. A computer system used to design a model of a product. Computer-aided design models are often the basis for a production process.

cyber-physical systems

CPSs. A system that combines physical equipment and devices with software to monitor and control industrial processes. In a cyber-physical system, physical objects and processes and virtual objects are synchronized in real time.

cybersecurity

Protection against criminal or unauthorized access to computer networks, programs, and data. Cybersecurity has become a major industrial concern as networking and connectivity have increased.

dashboards

A tool used to track, analyze, and display data about systems and processes on one screen for easy comparison and analysis. Dashboards can be easily shared across departments and personnel for easy communication.

data lifecycles

A type of model that defines the sequence of stages a type of data goes through, including its creation, usage, storage, and removal. Data lifecycles are a common type of information model.

data models

An abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to the properties of real-world entities. Data models are a common type of information model.

digital threads

An integrated view of all the data and information about a machine or process throughout its lifecycle. The digital thread connects information from all aspects of a product into one seamless network.

digital twin

A virtual representation of a physical asset or process. Digital twins enhanced with AI capabilities can use real-time and historical data to simulate and predict future conditions.

digital twins

A virtual, synchronized representation of physical assets and processes. Digital twins enhanced with AI capabilities can use real-time and historical data to simulate and predict future conditions.

distributed control systems

DCSs. A control system consisting of smaller programmable logic controllers placed strategically throughout a manufacturing facility. Distributed control systems require a high-speed communication network.

distributed data storage

An infrastructure that can store data across multiple physical servers, and often across more than one data center. Distributed data storage is the basis for massively scalable cloud and on-premise storage systems and provides scalability, reliability and high performance.

end effector

A device attached to the end of a robot arm that allows it to interact with a part, component, or material. The end effector may be a gripper that allows the robot to pick up objects and place them down.

enterprise quality management systems

EQMSs. A software application that integrates and manages all processes that relate to ensuring quality compliance. Enterprise quality management systems can connect data from multiple processes across the value chain product lifecycle execution (PLE) system.

enterprise resource planning

ERP. A specific application of a management information system that takes the data from internal and external information systems and integrates it throughout the organization. Enterprise resource planning is often integrated into product lifecycle management for cyber-physical manufacturing via the digital thread.

ERP

Enterprise resource planning. A specific application of a management information system that takes the data from internal and external information systems and integrates it throughout the organization. ERP is often integrated into product lifecycle management for cyber-physical manufacturing via the digital thread.

feedback

A return signal that confirms a condition of equipment and tools, such as position. Feedback devices include proximity sensors and encoders.

IIoT

Industrial Internet of Things. A network of physical devices used in manufacturing containing embedded computing systems that allow them to send and receive data. The IIoT allows devices to exchange data and automate processes without any human intervention.

Industrial Internet of Things

IIoT. A network of physical devices used in manufacturing containing embedded computing systems that allow them to send and receive data. The Industrial Internet of Things allows devices to exchange data and automate processes without any human intervention.

Industry 3.0

The third industrial era of manufacturing development, which began in the late 1970s. Industry 3.0 revolutionized machine manufacturing by introducing microcomputers and developing advanced software applications for automation.

Industry 4.0

The current industrial era of manufacturing development, which is characterized by devices and equipment that connect to the Industrial Internet of Things. Industry 4.0 uses automation, digital communication, and data analytics.

information flow diagrams

An organizational tool that charts a specific process step by step throughout a system or supply chain. Information flow diagrams are a common type of information model that help find the origins of data.

information modeling

Representing concepts, relationships, grouping, constraints, and rules of data to specify how data is organized for a chosen application. Information modeling helps improve data management and system security.

Intelligent Manufacturing Control Systems

IMCSs. Computer systems, process sensors, and personnel used to process and analyze data from manufacturing operations. Intelligent Manufacturing Control Systems, also known as Process Control Systems, offer flexibility and can respond to real-time situations.

interactive maps

A data visualization tool that locates information in a spatial context and provides the ability to explore the space, connected data, and other included information. Interactive maps allow users to easily update data, link information to external resources, and layer multiple types of data on one map.

interoperability

The capability of different systems and equipment from different vendors to communicate and share information and resources. Interoperability is made possible through digital networking, the Industrial Internet of Things, standardized data exchange, and other technologies that allow smart manufacturing systems to communicate.

line graphs

A type of chart used to show information that changes over time. Line graphs are common data visualization tools.

machine learning

ML. The process that enables a digital system to analyze data in order to build predictive models and make decisions autonomously. Machine learning is a key benefit of Industry 4.0.

machine-to-machine

M2M. The transfer of data between machines and the internet without human interaction. Machine-to-machine communication relies on sensors.

manufacturing execution systems

MESs. A software application that monitors and analyzes machine performance data related to processing materials and producing finished products. Manufacturing execution systems, also known as manufacturing operations management systems, can be used to integrate performance data from multiple machines in a product lifecycle execution (PLE) system.

manufacturing operations management

MOM. A software application that monitors and analyzes machine performance data related to processing materials and producing finished products. Manufacturing operations management systems, also called manufacturing execution systems, can be used to integrate performance data from multiple machines in a product lifecycle execution (PLE) system.

millisecond

ms. One thousandth of a second. Milliseconds can be used to measure the response times of programmable logic controllers.

multilayer maps

A type of interactive map that displays data from separate sources, processes, and datasets. Multilayer maps help compare and analyze data and processes that are unconnected.

multisource dashboards

A tool used to track, analyze, and display data from separate systems and processes on one screen for easy comparison and analysis. Multisource dashboards can display data visualization tools from difference sources or operations to help analyze and visualize connections between unconnected processes.

networks

A group of hardware devices connected through a cable or by wireless methods. A network allows multiple devices to communicate and share information.

PCSs

Process Control Systems. Computer systems, process sensors, and personnel used to process and analyze data from manufacturing operations. PCSs, also known as Intelligent Manufacturing Control Systems, offer flexibility and can respond to real-time situations.

personal computers

PCs. A processor-driven device that runs multiple programs and processes simultaneously. A personal computer may be used as an input device for manufacturing equipment.

pie charts

A circular chart that is divided into wedge-shaped sections that are proportional to the values of different data types that make up a whole dataset. Pie charts are common data visualization tools.

PLCs

Programmable logic controllers. A processor-driven device that uses logic-based software to provide electrical control to machines and processes. PLCs are used in industrial automation.

position sensors

A device that senses the location of a component. Position sensors may be used with equipment to aid automation.

predictive maintenance

A maintenance approach that involves collecting data in order to anticipate and correct potential issues before they arise. A predictive maintenance approach involves performing maintenance before failures occur to prevent unscheduled downtime and reduce the labor, cost, and time needed for repairs.

presence-sensing devices

A mechanism used to detect people or objects near hazardous areas of a machine. Presence-sensing devices often use pressure-sensitive mats or light curtains.

process control

A method of monitoring process performance by measuring and regulating the processes that yield a product. Process control involves collecting and analyzing data to help reduce error.

Process Control Systems

PCSs. Computer systems, process sensors, and personnel used to process and analyze data from manufacturing operations. Process Control Systems, also known as Intelligent Manufacturing Control Systems, offer flexibility and can respond to real-time situations.

product lifecycle management

PLM. A computer software program that traces all information related to the manufacture of a product from prototype to failure. Product lifecycle management software uses the digital thread to integrate all cyber-physical data related to the manufacture of a part and beyond.

programmable logic controllers

PLCs. A processor-driven device that uses logic-based software to provide electrical control to machines and processes. Programmable logic controllers are used in industrial automation.

protocols

A set of standards and rules used by networked devices to interact with each other. Protocols are the language that networked devices use to communicate.

proximity sensors

A device that detects a change in a physical condition and turns it into an electrical signal. Proximity sensors can sense the presence or absence of an object without making physical contact.

scatterplots

A data visualization tool that uses the clustering of plotted data points. Scatterplots are used to determine if the increase or decrease of one variable is related to an increase or decrease in another variable.

sensors

A device, often within or attached to a device, that detects a physical stimulus and turns it into a signal that can be measured and recorded. Sensors in smart devices make it possible for machines to communicate digitally.

servers

 The physical computer that shares information with other computers within its network. The server performs specialized functions in coordination with other computers.

SM application

SM App. Any modular software application that performs one or more functions of ERP, MES, or PCS software. SM Applications are connected to other systems and applications through interoperable smart manufacturing methods, application program interfaces, and/or platforms.

smart manufacturing

The information-driven, event-driven, efficient and collaborative orchestration of business, physical and digital processes within plants, factories, and across the entire value chain. Smart manufacturing uses the IIoT to connect devices and operations.

standards

An established policy regarding a particular practice or method. Standards for wireless technology are intended to enable the secure exchange of data between wireless devices.

supervisory control and data acquisition

SCADA. An industrial system used to monitor and control a large process. Supervisory control and data acquisition systems can control processes in one or more entire facilities.

supply chain

A complex network of companies and suppliers that produce and distribute a product. A supply chain consists of a company, its suppliers, its distributors, and its customers.

supply chain management

SCM. A computer software program that plans, implements, and controls the operations of a supply chain to maximize efficiency. Supply chain management software requires the cooperation of companies and resources.

temperature sensors

A type of sensor that measures thermal values. Temperature sensors monitor internal equipment and ambient temperatures.

three-dimensional

3D. Having a length, depth, and width. Creating three-dimensional digital models of a part is the first stage of part design.

time-to-failure

The length of time a product can be used before it fails. Time-to-failure is predicted using collected data for predictive maintenance.

vision sensors

A type of sensor that uses a camera to detect the presence, orientation, and features of an object. Vision sensors provide guidance to machines.

data visualization

The graphic representation of information collected from a system or process. Data visualization tools like graphs and interactive maps help humans understand operational data collected in smart manufacturing.

data visualization

The graphic representation of information collected from a system or process. Data visualization uses tools like graphs and interactive maps help humans understand operational data collected in smart manufacturing.