Introduction to Robotics 201
This class describes the basics of industrial robotics, including robot types, applications, programming methods, and safety. Industrial robots are reprogrammable machines that can perform repetitive or dangerous tasks with a high degree of accuracy. Manufacturers increasingly use robots to speed up production, improve part quality, and preserve operator safety. However, robots require human engineers and operators to program, maintain, repair, and oversee them.
Industrial robots are highly complex machines that come in many types, including stationary robots and mobile robots. These robots contain intricate components that must be assembled and maintained properly. Similarly, all robots must be adequately programmed to perform a task. After taking this class, students will know the basic robot components, types, applications, programming methods, and safety protocols.
Number of Lessons 21
- Industrial Robots
- Industrial Robot Components
- Axes and Motion
- Coordinate Systems
- Types of Robots
- Robotic Arms
- Robot and Components Review
- Welding Applications
- Material Handling Applications
- Additional Robot Applications
- Robot Programming
- Robot Applications, Workcells, and Integration Review
- Robot Connectivity and Software
- Artificial Intelligence
- Robot Safety
- Careers in Robotics
- Final Review
- Describe industrial robots.
- Describe the different components of industrial robots.
- Describe axes and motion related to industrial robots.
- Describe the different coordinate systems used to program robotic movements.
- Describe the main types of industrial robots.
- Describe robotic arms.
- Describe robot sensors.
- Describe collaborative robots.
- Describe robot workcells.
- Describe welding applications of industrial robots.
- Describe material handling applications of robots.
- Describe additional industrial robot applications.
- Describe robot programming.
- Describe robot integration.
- Describe robot connectivity and applicable software.
- Describe artificial intelligence and its use in robotics.
- Describe safety precautions for working with robots.
- Describe careers in industrial robotics.
A device that uses light and sensors to capture an object's geometric shape. 3D cameras collect object data for automation.
The ability to exactly reach a specified position. Accuracy is measured by how closely the physical robot positions itself to the programmed location.
AM. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object based on a three-dimensional computer model. Additive manufacturing methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
Automated guided vehicles. A programmable and highly sophisticated autonomous vehicle, often integrated with sensor technology, that moves throughout a space. AGVs are often used in warehouses and agricultural environments.
Artificial intelligence. A computer program that contains algorithms that function as behavioral rules. AI software provides a robot the ability to discern and learn from its experiences in order to make optimized decisions during operation or for subsequent processes.
A logical and mathematical expression that models a process or action. Algorithms are coded into a computer program that forms the rules that determine how a device such as a robot interacts with its environment.
Additive manufacturing. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object based on a three-dimensional computer model. AM methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
American National Standards Institute
ANSI. A private, non-profit organization that administers and coordinates voluntary standards and systems in the United States. The American National Standards Institute is one of several organizations that standardizes relevant safety codes for robot installation.
A fusion welding process that uses electricity to generate the heat needed to melt base and filler metals. Arc welding is the most commonly used welding process.
A type of robot that closely resembles a human arm. An articulated robot, also known as a manipulator, has six revolute joints.
AI. A computer program that contains algorithms that function as behavioral rules. Artificial intelligence software provides a robot the ability to discern and learn from its experiences in order to make optimized decisions during operation or for subsequent processes.
A manufacturing process in which two or more components are joined together to create a finished part. Assembly processes using robots assisted by vision systems are efficient, consistent, and more accurate than human assembly.
automated guided vehicles
AGVs. A programmable and highly sophisticated autonomous vehicle, often integrated with sensor technology, that moves throughout a space. Automated guided vehicles are often used in warehouses and agricultural environments.
A reference line that is used to define the position of an object in space. Axes can be linear or rotational.
The foundation of a robot that secures it to a surface. Bases for stationary robots are often secured to floors and walls for support.
base coordinate systems
A positioning system in which the origin is set at the base of a robot. The base coordinate system is particularly useful for precisely adjusting the position of a floor-mounted unit since the base position is physically fixed.
A wireless technology developed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group that enables short-range communication between wireless devices. Bluetooth technology is common for both industrial and consumer devices.
The casing and parts that provide structural support for the other components in a robot. The shape of a robot's body varies greatly depending on the type of robot.
A removable flat surface on which an additively manufactured part is constructed. Build plates are removable build platforms and must be carefully centered and leveled to ensure a successful build.
Cartesian coordinate system
A positioning system that uses three linear axes perpendicular to each other to locate positions and orientation in three-dimensional space. The three linear axes in the Cartesian coordinate system are the X axis, Y axis, and Z axis.
A type of robot that moves along three orthogonal axes. Cartesian robots have linear joint movement that gives them a highly rigid structure, allowing them to lift heavy objects.
The practice of using software and storing data on remote servers that can be accessed through the internet. Cloud computing is common among manufacturers and consumers.
Collaborative robot. A robot that can be programmed to learn a specific task in order to assist humans. A cobot is designed to interact with humans in a shared workspace.
Cobot. A robot that can be programmed to learn a specific task in order to assist humans. A collaborative robot is designed to interact with humans in a shared workspace.
A set of formal rules describing how to transmit or exchange data, especially across a network. Communication protocol standards enable equipment to efficiently communicate with one another.
computer numerical control
CNC. A self-contained system of computers and precise motors that executes program instructions to guide machine tool components. Computer numerical control allows operators to program sequences of machining operations.
A deep learning capability that enables artificial intelligence (AI) to detect and identify objects by recognizing visual patterns through a camera or on a screen. Computer vision can be useful for supervised or unsupervised machine learning but requires very large amounts of visual data.
A type of probe consisting of a synthetic ruby-tipped stylus that makes physical contact with a workpiece. A contact probe records one single point each time it touches a part's surface.
A type of sensor that uses physical contact to detect an object or surface and its features. Contact sensors for robots include tactile and force sensors.
A network of control loops used to manage dynamic processes by adjusting or maintaining physical variables. Control systems allow for more accurate processes.
The main device that processes information and communicates instructions to a robot. A controller operates the entire robotic system.
A device that carries parts or other components from one area of a manufacturing facility to another. Conveyors are commonly used to transport parts from production to packaging.
coordinate measuring machines
CMMs. A sophisticated measuring instrument that uses a suspended probe to measure parts in three-dimensional space. Coordinate measuring machines operate using either contact or noncontact methods.
A system that uses axes to describe the location of an object in three-dimensional space. A coordinate system expresses the location of any point as the distance from it to the origin, or the fixed intersection of axes.
The organization and analyzation of raw data into meaningful information. Data processing takes information from a robot's environment and converts it to a useful format to inform decisions and operations.
Testing programs to identify and fix errors. Debugging ensures that robot programs and operations are safe and work as intended.
Removing sharp projections left on a workpiece after a machining or grinding operation. Deburring is often done by hand or by robot using coated abrasives.
deep learning technologies
An advanced form of machine learning that uses neural networks with multiple hidden layers. Deep learning technologies can enable machines to exhibit advanced, human-like behaviors but require significant amounts of data.
degrees of freedom
DoF. The ability to move in a specific direction in three-dimensional space along or around an axis. Industrial robots typically have a maximum of six degrees of freedom, three for position and three for orientation.
A stationary, high-speed parallel robot. Delta robots are usually suspended above their work area and have three to four parallel arms that are attached to an end effector and driven by motors in the base of the robot.
Distributing or applying materials into containers or onto surfaces. Dispensing also includes blasting materials at a surface for cleaning purposes.
Any period during which a machine component is inactive. Downtime reduces the efficiency of a manufacturing operation and should always be limited as much as possible.
A holemaking process in which a rotating cutter makes a round hole in the workpiece to a certain depth. Drilling is often performed by a robot or other automated device.
A series of components that provide mechanical force to a robot to make it move. Drive systems can use hydraulic, pneumatic, or electric power.
Any device that introduces motion into a system. Drives help control the energy to and from electric motors.
A compact mobile robot that can be guided through programming or the use of a remote control. Drones used in aerospace and military applications often fly, swim, or both.
A device that uses electrical power to create rotary motion. Electric motors for robots are typically servomotors or stepper motors.
The area in which electricity jumps from an electrode to a workpiece to produce extreme heat and light. Electrical arcs are used in welding applications.
A device in an electrical circuit that conducts electricity. A welding electrode can also act as filler metal.
E-stops. A button or switch that brings a machine to a safe and rapid stop. Emergency stops are important safety features that are intended to be used in case of emergencies.
A device that translates rotary or linear motion into a digital signal. Encoders can determine a robot's position.
A device attached to the end of a robot arm that allows the robot to interact with a part, component, or material. The end effector, also known as an end-of-arm tool, may be a gripper that allows the robot to pick up objects and place them down.
EOATs. A device attached to the end of a robot arm that allows the robot to interact with a part, component, or material. The end-of-arm tool, also known as an end effector, may be a gripper that allows the robot to pick up objects and place them down.
Emergency stops. A button or switch that brings a machine to a safe and rapid stop. E-stops are important safety features that are intended to be used in case of emergencies.
A common local area network standard that is the most popular type of network for office communication. Ethernet ports and cables connect robots to local area networks.
o A type of sensor that is located outside of or mounted to a robot. External sensors provide feedback about the robot's environment.
factory acceptance tests
FATs. An assessment that ensures new equipment meets its purposes and requirements. Factory acceptance tests verify that equipment operates correctly and meets all customer specifications.
A signal sent from a sensor that provides information on the condition of a robot, such as position. Feedback is gathered by robot sensors, including proximity sensors and encoders.
A final machining process that achieves the desired surface finish and tolerance for a part or component. Finishing is often performed on grinders or with cutting tools.
A vehicle used to transport stacks of material throughout a warehouse or manufacturing environment. Forklifts are often combined with sensor technology in order to optimize a warehouse operation, especially when uses as automated vehicles.
A term to describe the location of an object in three-dimensional space. Frames are often used to describe robot coordinate systems.
gas metal arc welding
GMAW. An arc welding process in which a bare wire electrode and shielding gas are fed to the weld through a welding gun. Gas metal arc welding is also sometimes referred to as metal inert gas welding (MIG welding) or metal active gas welding (MAG welding), but these terms are nonstandard in the United States.
gas tungsten arc welding
GTAW. A precise arc welding process that uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and inert shielding gas. Gas tungsten arc welding is also known as tungsten inert gas welding (TIG welding).
A circular, toothed machine component that engages, rotates, and transmits power to another circular, toothed machine component when rotated. Gears are usually used in pairs to transmit energy and motion.
A subtractive manufacturing process used to improve surface finish and bring parts into close tolerance. Grinding is used as a post-processing procedure for metals and other materials.
A dexterous material-handling component that resembles and performs similarly to a human hand. Robotic grippers allow robots to perform tasks such as handling small parts or assembling components.
A collaborative robotics capability that enables a human operator to program a cobot for a collaborative task by physically leading the cobot through the task steps. Hand guiding can often be used to train cobots for a variety of collaborative applications.
Human-robot collaboration. The close interaction of a human operator and a robot in order to complete a task. HRC is a growing robot application as it allows for more flexibility in the use of robots while improving efficiency.
HMIs. A peripheral device that displays information and allows robots to interact with other equipment, computers, and networks. A human-machine interface may connect to an industrial network.
HRC. The close interaction of a human operator and a robot in order to complete a task. Human-robot collaboration is a growing robot application as it allows for more flexibility in the use of robots while improving efficiency.
A device that converts hydraulic energy from fluids into mechanical power. Hydraulic motors can be used to power robots.
Industrial Internet of Things
IIoT. A network of physical devices used in manufacturing that contain computing systems that allow them to send and receive data. The Industrial Internet of Things allows devices to exchange data and automate processes without any human intervention.
A molding process in which liquid resin is heated in a barrel and deposited into a mold by a reciprocating screw. Injection molding is a polymer shaping process used in traditional manufacturing.
A device that allows a human being to communicate with and program a robot. Input devices include keyboards and teach pendants.
The process of installing and incorporating equipment, such as a robot, into an industrial process. Robot integration includes the physical installation of components, as well as the planning and engineering of the entire system.
o A type of sensor that is located inside a robot. Internal sensors provide feedback about the state of the robot.
The angular measurement of a revolute joint from its initial position to its final position. Joint angles describe the angle between two connected robot links.
joint coordinate systems
A positioning system in which the origin is set at a specific joint. Joint coordinate systems, also called joint spaces, are typically used internally by the robot controller to calculate joint angles and perform inverse kinematics calculations.
A positioning system in which the origin is set at a specific joint. Joint spaces, also called joint coordinate systems, are typically used internally by the robot controller to calculate joint angles and perform inverse kinematics calculations.
A connecting component of a robot that enables relative motion between connecting links. Joints on a robot mimic the movement of human joints, such as wrists or elbows.
The science of motion without regard to the forces that cause motion. Kinematics describes the relationship between the positions, velocities, and accelerations of a robot's joints and links.
A portable measuring device that uses a beam of light to measure an object's geometric shape. Laser scanners collect large amounts of surface data quickly for safety and inspection.
A welding process that uses a laser to create a weld. Laser welding makes deep, strong, clean welds, but it is expensive and requires either automation or a highly trained welder.
A robot programming operation in which engineers or operators physically take a robot through the steps of a manufacturing operation. Lead-through programming is a type of online programming.
A robot that uses appendages to move. Legged robots are a type of mobile robot.
A field of light that stops a machine when the light is blocked by an object. Light curtains send stopping signals to the controller to prevent robots from striking personnel and equipment.
Fully automated manufacturing that can operate independently in a facility without any employees on site. Lights-out manufacturing allows facilities to operate for extended hours while reducing labor costs.
An axis that describes movement along a straight line. Linear axes describe side-to-side, front-to-back, or up-and-down movement.
A rigid body between two joints. A robot's link movement is actuated by motors in the joints.
local area networks
LANs. A type of wired network that enables communication between a group of computing devices in a specific geographic location. Local area networks are commonly used by manufacturers and other organizations to store and exchange digital information across a large facility.
A method of protecting employees by preventing accidental machine startup through proper locking and labeling of machines during maintenance. Lockout/tagout is the common term for OSHA's Control of Hazardous Energy Standard.
ML. The process that enables a digital system to analyze data in order to build predictive models and make decisions autonomously. Machine learning systematically solves problems using highly complex algorithms.
The process of loading and unloading materials into and out of machinery for processing. Machine tending uses robots that are precise and often interact with CNC machines.
material deposition head
A nozzle that melts and dispenses material. Material deposition heads are used with robots in additive manufacturing.
The process of loading, unloading, placing, or manipulating material. Material handling operations often require highly repetitive tasks that are ideal for robotic work.
A material-handling component used to grasp and manipulate objects. Mechanical grippers allow robots to perform tasks such as handling small parts or assembling components.
The science of measurement. Metrology strives for accuracy, precision, and repeatability.
Robot software that allows communication between robots and other equipment within a system. Middleware allows complex robot systems to be controlled from a single interface.
A robot that is able to move through space. Mobile robots often use tracks or a set of independent wheels to move.
Controlling the movement of machine elements. Motion control uses a mechanical source of power like an actuator.
A machine that converts one form of energy, such as electricity, into another. Robot motors typically convert electrical energy into rotary motion.
An internet or intranet system used to connect devices for factory automation and process control applications. Industrial networks can include robots in automated processes.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. A federal agency that is responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
A type of probe that consists of a laser or scanning system that does not physically contact the part surface. Noncontact probes are used to streamline surface inspection.
A type of sensor that detects changes and objects without using physical contact. Noncontact sensors for robots include proximity sensors and vision sensors.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA. A government agency dedicated to reducing injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration also provides robot safety guidelines.
A method of robot instruction that involves a programmer or computer engineer creating the instructions for a robotic operation independently of the robot. Offline programming involves either writing all the instructions for an operation or using a computer simulation.
A displacement caused by the addition of a robotic end effector. The end effect's offset is compensated by TCP.
A method of creating instructions for a robot that involves an engineer interacting directly with an active robot during the process. Online programming includes teach-pendant programming and walk-through, or lead-through, programming.
A person responsible for running a manufacturing machine or process. Operators are responsible for running their assigned tasks correctly, safely, and efficiently and must alert engineers if problems or inefficiencies arise.
A fixed, central point in the Cartesian coordinate system where the X, Y, and Z axes intersect. The origin has a numerical value of zero.
padded contact sensors
A cushioned contact sensor designed to detect and respond to physical contact or pressure. Padded contact sensors help prevent robots from contacting objects with too much force, whether intentionally or unintentionally.
The process of placing and securing containers or objects on pallets or other storage structures. Palletizing robots are especially useful for moving objects that would be too difficult or too heavy for humans to move.
A robot that relies on three or more linear actuators to control a single end effector. Parallel robots include delta robots.
Robot software that uses algorithms to direct the robot's motions through space. Path planning software finds the safest and most efficient route for a robot to complete a task.
The maximum amount of weight that a machine is able to manipulate. Payload limits vary robot to robot.
personal protective equipment
PPE. Any clothing or device worn to minimize exposure to hazards and prevent injury. Personal protective equipment may include eye and ear protection, safety footwear, gloves, and other devices.
Applications that require robots to move parts from one location to another. Pick-and-place robots improve the precision, quality, and speed of manufacturing operations.
A welding process that emits a plasma arc and an external shielding gas. Plasma welding is commonly used for deep, narrow welds.
An abrasive finishing process used to improve the surface of a part and give it a smooth, shiny appearance. Polishing tasks can be automated using robots equipped with abrasive finishing tools.
A device that senses the location of a component. Position sensors may be used with industrial robots to aid automation.
The use of data to predict future events. Predictive analytics allows manufacturers to make informed decisions to address things like future supply needs, machine maintenance, and customer demand.
A maintenance approach that involves collecting data in order to anticipate and correct potential issues before they arise. A predictive maintenance approach involves performing maintenance before failures occur to prevent unscheduled downtime and reduce the labor, cost, and time needed for repairs.
A device used to detect the location of people or objects near hazardous areas of a machine. Presence-sensing devices include pressure-sensitive mats and light curtains.
A safety device that contains sensors to detect weight or pressure. When placed on the floor around hazardous areas, presence-sensing mats can sense an operator's presence and then disengage the machine.
A joint that moves in a straight line along a single axis. Prismatic joints generate translational motion.
The process of entering digital information into a computer or computerized system. Programming involves the use of a machine interface and a programming language that can tell the machine what actions to perform.
A device that uses a sensing field to detect the presence of an object. Proximity sensors can be used in conjunction with robots to help position the robot in space relative to other objects.
Quick Response codes
QR codes. A type of two-dimensional bar code that directs a scanner to a website or application. Quick Response codes can be read using mobile devices with built-in cameras, such as smartphones.
A device that uses radio waves to detect, locate, and track objects in its vicinity. Radar sensors are often used for robot safety.
The length of a fully extended robot from its base to the tip of the end effector. A robot's reach determines the size of its work envelope.
The ability to return to a specific position over and over again. High repeatability is a characteristic of a reliable robot.
A joint that moves in a circular path along a single axis. Revolute joints generate rotational motion.
robot operating systems
ROSs. A framework used for developing and controlling robots. Robot operating systems run along with other operating systems and provide collections of software to help build robot programs and applications.
A machine that automatically performs complicated and repetitive tasks. Robots often perform work that is too dangerous or strenuous for humans.
An axis that describes rotation around a linear axis. The rotational axes are designated as RX, RY, and RZ.
The rotational axis that describes rotation around, or about, the X axis. RX is one of three rotational axes and allows for more complex machine movement.
The rotational axis that describes rotation around, or about, the Y axis. RY is one of three rotational axes and allows for more complex machine movement.
The rotational axis that describes rotation around, or about, the Z axis. RZ is one of three rotational axes and allows for more complex machine movement.
Any device, barrier, or process that protects an employee from being injured by a machine. Safeguarding systems include physical barriers and presence-sensing devices.
A type of physical barrier used to deter accidental entry into a robot's workcell. Safety fencing should include signs warning of the hazards within its boundaries.
Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm robots. A type of cylindrical robot that has four axes of movement: X, Y, Z, and Theta Z. SCARA robots are often used for material handling applications.
Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm robots
SCARA robots. A type of cylindrical robot that has four axes of movement: X, Y, Z, and Theta Z. Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm robots are often used for material handling applications.
A device that detects a change in a stimulus and turns it into a signal that can be measured or recorded. Sensors allow robots and other devices to interact with their environment and operate with little human intervention.
A robot that is made up of a series of links connected by joints from the base to the end effector. Serial robotics, such as robotic arms, generally have six degrees of freedom.
A computer program that generates three-dimensional models of a robot, its parts, and its manufacturing environment. Simulation software also records the desired robot movements, creating control programs that can be uploaded to the robot's machine interface.
site acceptance tests
SATs. A final inspection of equipment, its installation environment, and the system's operation. Site acceptance tests are the system's final testing before operation.
A method of manufacturing designed to improve product design and processes through the integration of digital technology throughout the supply chain. Smart manufacturing increases connectivity across all areas of product development.
The coded instructions or programs that control robot hardware functions and operations. Software allows robots to perform complex tasks with autonomy.
A type of welding in which parts are squeezed together between two electrodes and subjected to a high electric current to form a joint. Spot welding is largely used in the automotive industry.
The process of applying paint or other liquid coatings with a sprayer. Spray painting is a common application of articulated robots.
A coating application method that involves separating a liquid into fine particles to form a mist that is directed at the surface. Spraying is usually done using a spray gun and can be done by a robot.
A metalworking operation that uses dies and punches to form or separate sheet metal into parts. Stamping can be performed using a punch press.
A robot that is anchored to the ground by a base. Stationary robots may have moving parts, but, as a whole, they are fixed to a specific position.
A device that measures various parameters that describe the contact between a sensor and an object. Tactile sensors can detect the texture of an object.
A robot setting that allows an engineer or operator to control the robot's movements and save those movements as an operating program. Teach mode, or manual mode, is used in online programming.
A device used to control a robot during programming. Teach pendants may have control buttons, a joystick, or a touchscreen.
A type of sensor that measures thermal values. Temperature sensors monitor both internal robot and ambient temperatures.
An axis that corresponds to the angle around the Z axis of the tool of a robot. The Theta Z axis is a rotating axis.
An acceptable deviation from a desired dimension that meets specifications. Parts outside of a required tolerance must be discarded or reworked.
tool center point
TCP. A coordinate system that defines the tip of the end effector and adjusts for its offset. The tool center point system must be configured for each end effector used.
A device that contains two mating parts designed to attach and detach tools. Tool changers connect the process tooling to the robot's arm.
tool coordinate systems
A positioning system in which the origin is set at the robot's wrist. The tool coordinate system moves as the tool attached to the robot moves.
A mobile robot that pulls trailers loaded with material. Tow vehicles, also known as tuggers or tugs, may be programmed to operate automatically or controlled by a remote operator.
A shearing operation that removes uneven sections or degraded sections from a previously worked part. Trimming operations are sometimes required after thermal cutting processes.
UV. A potentially harmful wavelength of light that is below, or shorter than, violet on the light spectrum. Ultraviolet light can be harmful for human operators.
user coordinate systems
A positioning system in which the origin is set by the user. In the user coordinate system, the origin is usually set to the worktable or a workholding device.
A device that uses flexible suction cups and vacuum-controlled airflow to attach to parts. Vacuum grippers allow robots to perform tasks such as handling and moving parts.
A type of sensor that uses a camera to detect the presence, orientation, and features of an object. Vision sensors provide guidance to robots.
A collection of advanced optical components that collects data and forms an image that is interpreted by a computer. Vision systems can be used to guide the movement of mobile robots.
A joining process that uses either pressure or heat generated by friction, electricity, or the combustion of gases to permanently fuse two materials together. Production welding is often performed by robots.
A welding instrument that conducts electricity, guides the electrode, and, in some cases, releases shielding gas. A welding gun may be used as an end effector for robotic welding.
A welding instrument that holds an electrode and generates an arc or releases gases to produce a flame used to metal materials. A welding torch may be used as an end effector for robotic welding.
A type of mobile robot that utilizes a set of wheels to move freely throughout a space. Wheeled robots are the most common mobile robots in manufacturing.
A type of wireless network that enables communication between devices at a single geographical location. WiFi typically connects a wireless access point to a wired internet device.
wireless local area network
WLAN. A type of wireless network that enables communication between devices at a single geographical location. Wireless local area networks are typically established by connecting a wireless access point to a wired internet device.
The defined area of space through which a robot can move. The work envelope is dangerous for operators to enter unless the robot is powered down.
The area that includes a robot and any external devices or equipment that interact with the robot. Robotic workcells contain the maximum volume of space that the robot can reach.
A method or device to secure a workpiece for a machining operation. Workholding can include chucks, vises, and bolts.
work-object coordinate system
A positioning system in which the origin is set to a point on the workpiece. The work-object coordinate system is most useful when workpieces may be moved during a manufacturing operation, such as when a part is flipped so it can be welded on both sides.
world coordinate system
A positioning system in which the origin is set to a fixed point in the manufacturing area. The world coordinate system facilitates programming of two or more robots that must work together.
The linear axis that most often describes side-to-side movement. The X axis is one of the two horizontal axes in the Cartesian coordinate system.
The linear axis that most often describes front-to-back movement. The Y axis is one of the two horizontal axes in the Cartesian coordinate system.
The linear axis that most often describes up-and-down movement. The Z axis is the single vertical axis in the Cartesian coordinate system.