Introduction to Electric Vehicle Charging 150
This class explores the various types of technology used to charge electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A number of standards have been developed for EV charging. The standards include different electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) designed for Level 1 Charging, Level 2 Charging, and DC Fast Charging functionality. EVSE design varies by country and region. EVSE design standards in the United States include SAE J1772, CCS1, and NACS connectors and components, while the EU has similar standards. While standards may vary, all public charging facilities require charging management systems to control charging functionalities and manage safety.After taking this course, users will be able to identify components used use for EV charging and understand the basics of how electrical power is transferred from the grid for use in both residential and public EV charging systems.
Number of Lessons 10
- Electric Vehicle Charging Overview
- Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
- Level 1 Charging
- Level 2 Charging
- Review: EV Charging Overview
- DC Fast Charging
- Electric Vehicle Charging Components
- Charging Management Systems
- Portable EV Charging Options
- Final Review
- Describe the basic electric vehicle charging process.
- Describe general equipment used to charge electric vehicles.
- Describe Level 1 Charging technology for electric vehicles.
- Describe Level 2 Charging technology for electric vehicles.
- Describe DC Fast Charging technology for electric vehicles.
- Distinguish between electric vehicle charging connectors and adapters.
- Describe charging management systems for electric vehicles.
- Describe portable charging technology for electric vehicles.
Alternating current. Current that continuously reverses the direction of flow. AC is converted to direct current (DC) to charge EV batteries.
AC. Current that continuously reverses the direction of flow. formed when electrons flow in one direction and then the opposite direction. Alternating current is converted to direct current (DC) to charge EV batteries.
battery management system
BMS. A computer that monitors, regulates, and coordinates the operations of a battery pack. The battery management system in an EV may be either centralized or distributed.
CCS1 to CCS2 adapter
An EV charging adapter that converts a CCS1 connector to a CCS2 connector. CCS1 to CCS2 adapters allow vehicles equipped with United States-standard DC Fast Charging components to use DC Fast Charging equipment in the European Union and other parts of the world.
CCS2 to CCS1 adapters
An EV charging adapter that converts a CCS2 connector to a CCS1 connector. CCS2 to CCS1 adapters allow vehicles equipped with European Union-standard DC Fast Charging components to use DC Fast Charging equipment in the United States.
An electric vehicle charging component designed to convert one type of connector to another type of connecter. Charging adapters allow EVs to utilize multiple types of charging connectors.
charging management systems
CMSs. A specialized software system designed to coordinate, monitor, and manage electric vehicle charging activities. Charging management systems are offered by various software design companies.
An enclosure attached to the ground that contains electrical circuits and devices used for electric vehicle charging. Charging stands are typically installed at public charging facilities.
An overcurrent device with a switch that automatically opens a circuit. Circuit breakers interrupt circuits to prevent overloading and overheating.
Combined Charging System
CCS. A type of charging connector design that includes standard AC charging pins along with additional, high-power DC pins to accommodate DC Fast Charging. Combined Charging System connector standards are somewhat similar in North American, the European Union, and other regions that use the standard.
Combined Charging System, Type 1
CCS1. The common standard connector design used for DC Fast Charging in the U.S. Combined Charging System, Type 1 connectors include the same pins as an SAE J1772 connector along with a positive and a negative DC power line.
Combined Charging System, Type 2
CCS2. The common standard connector design used for DC Fast Charging in the EU and various other regions. CCS2 connectors include the same pins as a Mennekes connector along with a positive and a negative DC power line.
A cables with a plug designed to connect to a charging receptacle on an electric vehicle. Connectors for electric vehicles typically adhere to connector design standards.
A type of relay that is designed to handle heavy and fluctuating current loads. Contactors provide safe connection to and disconnection from high-voltage power loads and use an electromagnetic coil to operate contacts.
Direct current. Current that travels in one direction. Direct current does not reverse the direction of flow, and used is in the form of electricity used to charge batteries.
DC Fast Charging
A method of charging electric vehicles that converts large amounts of AC from the electric grid to DC within the external charging components, then transfers it directly to the battery engine. DC Fast Charging, which is sometimes called Level 3 Charging, provides much faster charging speeds since it converts much higher AC voltages, ranging from 480V to 1000V.
A metal track or rail, standardized by the Deutsche Institut für Normung (DIN), to which PLCs and other electronic devices can be easily attached or removed. DIN rails are often used in electrical panels, wall boxes, charging stands, and other electrical devices.
DC. Current that travels in one direction. Direct current does not reverse the direction of flow.
A switchgear operated manually or automatically that is flipped to open a circuit. Disconnect switches are used to isolate all charging station power from the electric grid.
A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Electric generators are often powered by gasoline.
A network of electrical connections used to transfer electrical power from a source to multiple points of use. The electrical grid uses many energy sources including fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, atomic power, and renewable energy sources.
electric traction motor
A type of motor that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy or motion. Electric traction motors in electric vehicles convert electrical energy from the traction battery into the force that rotates the vehicle's wheels.
EV. A vehicle that uses full or partial electric motor power to propel itself forward. Electric vehicles produce less emissions than internal combustion engine vehicles and have better fuel economy.
electric vehicle supply equipment
EVSE. Technology used to connect electric vehicles to the electric grid for charging purposes. Electric vehicle supply equipment includes charging stands, wall boxes, cables, connectors, adapters, and other devices.
Components on an electrical circuit that consume various amounts of electrical energy. Amounts of energy consumed by electrical loads are measure in Watts (W).
A grouping of electrical devices that divide upstream electricity into separate circuits to reach individual components downstream. Electrical panels consist of fuses, circuit breakers, and other devices.
A device that tracks and measures energy output over time and is used to calculate energy costs. Energy meters often measure energy output in ampere-hours (Ah) or kilowatt-hours (kWh).
The price of energy consumption at any given time. Energy rates are typically given as cost per kilowatt hour (kWh).
Electric vehicle. A vehicle that uses full or partial electric motor power to propel itself forward. EVs produce less emissions than internal combustion engine vehicles and have better fuel economy.
Electric vehicle supply equipment. Technology used to connect electric vehicles to the electric grid for charging purposes. EVSE includes charging stands, wall boxes, cables, connectors, adapters, and other devices.
An overcurrent device with a metallic component that melts to open a circuit. Fuses detect excess current to prevent overheating in a circuit.
A standard of measurement used to describe the diameter of a wire. Gauge numbers increase as wire diameters get smaller.
A short circuit fault that creates an unintended path to the ground. Ground faults put employees at high risk of electric shock.
The physical equipment and components that make up an electric grid. Building a sustainable infrastructure for electric vehicles requires upgrading to more renewable energy sources.
A standard charging connector for North American electric vehicles. J-plug, also known as SAE-J1772, connectors can handle Level 1 and Level 2 Charging power.
Level 1 Charging
A method of charging electric vehicles with alternating current power that uses equipment capable of transferring 120 volts of electrical energy. Level 1 Charging uses power sources commonly found in residential homes but has the slowest charging speeds.
Level 2 Charging
A method of charging electric vehicles with alternating current power that uses equipment capable of transferring 240 volts of electrical energy. Level 2 Charging uses power sources often found in residential homes and offers faster charging speeds that Level 1 Charging capabilities.
The process of digitally managing the output of available charging energy at one or more charging locations. Load balancing uses software to track and adjust charging output levels for each vehicle based on energy costs, safety parameters, and the amount of energy available.
miniature circuit breakers
MCBs. A smaller type of circuit breaker designed to fit smaller circuit connections and detect overcurrent. Miniature circuit breakers protect smaller components within a wall box or charging stand enclosure from overloading and overheating.
Charging technology installed on a vehicle in order to bring charging functionality to an EV's location. Mobile charging may use battery, gasoline, or diesel power and may be designed to charge multiple vehicles.
NACS to J1772 adapter
An EV charging adapter that converts an NACS connector to a J1772 connector. NACS to J1772 adapters allow vehicles with NACS components to use Level 2 Charging equipment in the United States.
National Electric Code
NEC. The standard for minimum safe electrical installations in the United States. The National Electrical Code is adopted in some form as law in all 50 states.
A standardized electrical plug and outlet design developed by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association for 240V AC circuits that use two hot wires, one ground wire, and one neutral wire. NEMA 14-50 plugs and outlets can be used for Level 2 Charging in homes.
A standardized electrical plug and outlet design developed by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association for 120V AC circuits. The NEMA 5-15 plugs and outlets are used for Level 1 Charging.
A standardized electrical plug and outlet design developed by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association for 240 V AC circuits that use two hot wires and one ground wire. NEMA 6-50 plugs and outlets can be used for Level 2 Charging but are less common than NEMA-14-50 designs.
North American Charging Standard
A connector design originally intended for proprietary use only that has become a standard design in the U.S. North American Charging Standard connectors are capable of both AC and DC charging but require adapters for AC.
A device installed in an electric vehicle that converts stored alternating current supplied by a power source into direct current to power the electric motor. Onboard chargers are used in fully electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, but not fully hybrid electric vehicles.
Charging technology that stores energy that can be used when not plugged in to the electric grid. Most portable charging options provide Level 2 Charging, though some can provide DC Fast Charging for a limited time.
An electrical control device used to change electrical power from one form to another. Some power converters change alternating current to direct current, and vice versa.
printed circuit board assemblies
PCBAs. A layered construction of conductive and nonconductive material with various electronic components soldered to it. Printed circuit board assemblies can be found in almost all electronic devices.
residual current circuit breakers
RCCBs. A type of circuit breaker that detects overcurrent and current leakage in main power circuits. Residual current circuit breakers perform standard circuit breaker functions but also interrupt circuits when the current leaks away from the intended direction, which helps prevent electrical shock.
A standard charging connector for North American electric vehicles. SAE J1772, also known as J-Plug, connectors can handle Level 1 and Level 2 Charging power.
A device that protects electrical circuits and equipment from transients by regulating voltage on the line. Surge arrestors react quickly to high-voltage conditions to protect against damage.
A device that joins wires or cables. Terminal blocks typically snap into a metal rail or are screw-mounted on the panel of a control enclosure.
A device used in an electrical circuit to increase or reduce the voltage of incoming electrical power. Transformers in electric vehicle supply equipment raise or lower the voltage to levels suitable for the connected components.
The maximum distance an electric vehicle can travel on a fully charged battery. Travel ranges for batteries in fully electric vehicles are higher than for batteries in hybrid electric vehicles, which also have a combustion engine.
V. A unit of measurement that indicates the amount of electrical force or pressure in a circuit. Volts measure voltage, which is also known as electromotive force.
An enclosure mounted on a wall that contains electrical circuits and devices used for electric vehicle charging. Wall boxes are typically installed in homes for residential charging.
A solid or flexible strip of material that covers and protects electrical wiring and directs the wires along their intended paths. Wiring ducts, often called raceways, may be slotted to allow wires to pass through the sides of the duct, or slotless to fully enclose the wires.