Fabrication Process 232

Fabrication Process outlines the procedures that a project planner should follow when creating a product from start to finish. A fabrication project can be something as simple as building a cabinet or as complex as constructing a motorcycle. After coming up with a project idea, the planner should list all of the requirements, including material, safety, and budgetary concerns. If all requirements can be met, the planner should research objects similar to the project idea and develop a design. The planner then creates a blueprint of the project, as well as a bill of materials. After deciding on the order of operations that will result in the completed project, the planner should implement the plan step by step to complete the project.

There are many important considerations involved with any fabrication process. After this class, users will be able to develop a fabrication plan and complete a project.

  • Difficulty Intermediate

  • Format Online

  • Number of Lessons 19

  • Language English


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Course Outline
  • Fabrication Projects
  • Brainstorming Project Solutions
  • Project Variables
  • Research
  • Material Properties
  • Material Accessibility
  • Fabrication Requirements
  • Planning a Project Design
  • Creating a Blueprint
  • Drawing the Project
  • Bill of Materials
  • Project Design
  • Fabrication Procedure
  • Finishing
  • Safety Concerns
  • Implementation
  • Planning Process
  • Sample Fabrication Project: Utility Trailer
  • Fabrication Process Review
  • Describe fabrication projects.
  • Describe the brainstorming process.
  • Describe the variables necessary to complete a project.
  • Describe the process of researching a project design.
  • Identify the material properties to consider when planning a project.
  • Describe how access to material impacts a project.
  • Describe the process of planning a project design.
  • Describe what a blueprint should include.
  • Describe how a drawing is created for a blueprint.
  • Describe a bill of materials.
  • Describe the steps necessary to fabricate a project.
  • Describe finishing processes.
  • Describe the safety concerns that impact a project.
  • Describe the process of implementing a fabrication plan.
  • Describe the process of implementing a fabrication plan.
Vocabulary Term

3D printed

A process by which a machine layers material to make an object based on a three-dimensional computer model. Prototypes are sometimes 3D printed.


A chemical material used to bond two objects together. Adhesives are often used to join nonmetallic and metallic materials.


A fabric or leather body covering that ties over the neck and behind the back. Aprons protect the front of the body from chest to knee from fire hazards.


The process of joining objects. Assembly can include use of fasteners, adhesives, or welding.


A rotating shaft attached to a wheel or gear. Axles are used to attach wheels to vehicles.

bill of materials

BOM. A report that lists the materials required to make a particular product and the cost of each individual component. A bill of materials includes all project materials, including any accessories and fasteners.


A document that contains all instructions for a particular part and communicates all requirements necessary to fabricate a quality part. Blueprints contain three main elements: the views, their dimensions, and the notes.


A document that contains all instructions for a particular part and communicates all requirements necessary to fabricate a quality part. Blueprints contain three main elements: the views, their dimensions, and the notes.


Bill of materials. A report that lists the materials required to make a particular product and the cost of each individual component. A BOM includes all project materials, including any accessories and fasteners.

bonded abrasive wheel

A grinding tool made of grits that are held together with chemical bonding into a circular shape. A bonded abrasive wheel rotates along the surface of a part to remove material.


The act of rapidly listing ideas, problems, or solutions. Brainstorming generates multiple responses to a particular question.


The estimated cost for a project. Budgets include all monetary investments and labor costs required to fabricate a project.

circular saw

A powered saw that uses a rotating round, metal disk with teeth around its perimeter to cut through a material. A circular saw is often used to cut through lumber.


A workholding device used to join, grip, support, or compress mechanical or structural parts. Clamps might be used to hold large sheets of wood or metal together.


A finish used for protective and decorative purposes. Coatings like paint or varnish are applied to products at the end of the part creation process.

computer-aided design

CAD. The use of a computer to design parts. Computer-aided design software can create a virtual model of a part.


A material that allows free movement of electrons and therefore enables the easy flow of electricity. Most conductors are metals.


A reddish metal that is very ductile, thermally and electrically conductive, and corrosion resistant. Copper is often used to make electrical wire.


The gradual deterioration of a material due to atmosphere, moisture, chemicals, or other agents. Corrosion often appears as rust.

corrosion resistance

The ability of a material to resist deterioration and chemical breakdown due to surface exposure in a particular environment. Stainless steel has a high corrosion resistance.


A full flame resistant suit worn over existing clothing. Coveralls protect the arms, neck, shoulders, chest, abdomen, back, and legs.


The change in an object's size or shape as a result of stress. Deformation results from structural change caused by mechanical forces.


The desired measurement of a part feature. Dimensions are listed as numbers given in the appropriate units.


The measure of a material's ability to be drawn, stretched, or formed without fracturing. Metals with good ductility include copper and aluminum.


Full-ear coverings that are connected by a headband. Earmuffs require a perfect seal around the ear.


Hearing protection designed to fit in the ear. Earplugs can be single-use or pre-formed for long-term use.

electrical conductivity

The ability of a material to act as a medium for conveying electricity. Electrical conductivity is high for most metals.


A magnet formed from electric current. An electromagnet is typically formed by wrapping a current-carrying coil around an iron core.


The process of creating or building parts from raw materials. Fabrication projects require extensive planning before they can be completed.


A person who constructs a fabrication project. Fabricators perform any roughing, machining, assembly, and finishing that needs to occur for a project to meet specifications.

face shield

A rigid, transparent plastic sheet that covers the worker's entire face to protect against dust or splashes. Because face shields do not protect against impacts, they are often worn with goggles.


A device that holds objects together or locates them in relation to one another. Common fasteners include screws, bolts, and rivets.


ft. A unit of linear measurement in the English System. One foot equals 12 inches English and 30.48 centimeters Metric.

filler metal

Metal deposited into the weld zone or solder joint that often adds strength and mass to the joint. Solder is a type of filler metal.


A cutting pass that emphasizes tight tolerances and smooth surface finish. Finishing is usually the last step in the machining process.


Treated to slow the formation and spread of flames. Fire-retardant clothing will not ignite and continue to burn like normal clothing.

graphic art programs

A computer application designed to create and edit visual images and designs. Graphic art programs can be adapted to create a blueprint on the computer.


The use of an abrasive tool to remove material from a workpiece. Grinding operations commonly use abrasive grains bonded into a wheel shape.

hard hat

A lightweight, protective head covering used to protect the head from impacts, bumps, and electrical shock. Hard hats have a shock-absorbing lining with a headband and straps that suspend the shell away from the skull.


The measurement of a material's ability to resist penetration, indentation, and scratching. Hardness in steel increases with its carbon content.


A source of danger or possible injury. Hazards can be physical hazards, such as fires and falling objects, or health hazards, such as chemical exposures.

high-carbon steel

A metal alloy made up of iron and more than 0.5% carbon. High-carbon steel has high strength and hardness.


A component that mounts on the frame of a trailer and connects it to a vehicle. Hitches are often rectangular in shape and have a socket at the end that links with a ball that is mounted to the rear of a vehicle.


A silver-white metal that is highly magnetic. Iron is alloyed with carbon to make steel.


A meeting point of two or more parts that are fused together. Permanent joints are created by welding.


A machining operation that displaces material rather than cutting it. Knurling embeds a textured, rough pattern into a part's surface.


The process of removing material to form an object. Machining methods include milling, turning, and drilling.


The power of attraction and repulsion that exists in materials. Magnetism most often occurs between metals.

mechanical forces

Power that attempts deform a material. Mechanical forces may attempt to bend, stretch, break, or indent a material.

mechanical properties

A characteristic that describes how a material reacts when subjected to an outside force. Mechanical properties include hardness, ductility, and tensile strength.


An additional instruction or general comment added to a blueprint. Notes contain information about the material, finish, tooling, tolerances, and other miscellaneous information.

orthographic views

A drawing, often used for blueprints, that communicates the shape and size of an object in two dimensions. Orthographic views show all the design elements of a part through a series of illustrations, each showing one of its necessary sides from a continuous perspective.

personal protective equipment

PPE. Any example of various safety equipment that workers wear or use to prevent injury in the workplace. Common PPE includes safety glasses and hard hats.

physical properties

A characteristic that describes a material's volumetric, thermal, electrical, and magnetic qualities. Physical properties are a collection of characteristics that describe how a material responds to forces other than mechanical forces.


The end result that fulfills an objective. Fabrication projects include the various aspects of creating an item for a particular purpose.


A product whose rights are owned by the company that designed it. Proprietary products can be used only with the permission of the owner.

protective gloves

A hand covering designed to protect the hands from hazards such as chemicals, heat, or abrasion. Protective gloves are the most common type of hand protection.


A preliminary model of a product used to complete design evaluation. Final versions of the product are developed based on prototypes.


A type of inclined plane. A ramp is used to load materials onto a trailer.

raw materials

An unprocessed substance that has not been manufactured. Raw materials are used to make fabrication projects.


A breathing device worn to prevent inhalation of hazardous substances. Respirators may purify air for or supply air to the wearer.


Fit for use on public streets. A roadworthy vehicle must be licensed by the state.


A cutting pass that removes material without regard to surface finish. Roughing is often used to separate part pieces from a single sheet of material.


A simple measuring instrument consisting of a long, thin metal strip with a marked scale of unit divisions. A ruler can come in many sizes and forms and can be rigid or flexible.

safety glasses

Protective eyeglasses with metal or plastic frames and impact-resistant lenses. Many safety glasses also have protective side shields or offer vision correction.


A form of grinding that uses a fine grain abrasive to remove small amounts of surface material. Sanding improves the finish of a surface.


A uniform size decrease or increase that allows a large object to be accurately depicted in a smaller form or a small object to be accurately depicted in a larger form. Scaling an object up or down in size creates a prototype of the object.


A metal or alloy with a low melting point that is melted to join materials. Solders are filler metals that are specific to soldering.


A process that uses a low-melting point filler metal to form a joint between two solid base metals. Soldering is often used for delicate projects such as jewelry and electronics.


The design parameters that set the limits of acceptable deviation for a part's intended application. Specifications are established in a blueprint.

spreadsheet programs

A computer application that stores data in tables. Spreadsheet programs can be adapted to create a blueprint on the computer.

stainless steel

A type of steel that contains more than 15% chromium. Stainless steel has corrosion resistance.


Raw material that is used to make manufactured parts. Stock is available in standard shapes such as long bars, plates, or sheet.


The ability of a material to resist forces that attempt to break or deform it. Strength is a type of mechanical property.


A metal alloy consisting of numerous alloying elements that is very expensive and designed to perform under intense conditions. Superalloys are used for advanced applications in the aerospace and medical industries.

surface finish

The degree of roughness and variation on the surface of a part after it has been manufactured. The surface finish of a part may need to be smooth or intentionally rough.


A quality in which all the features on either side of a point, line, or plane are identical. A symmetrical part has the same dimensions on both sides.

synthetic clothing

Apparel that is manufactured and not derived from natural products. Synthetic clothing that is not specifically made to be fire-retardant will burn easily.

tensile strength

The ability of a material to resist forces that attempt to pull apart or stretch it. Tensile strength Is a type of mechanical property.

three dimensional

3D. Occurring within three planes of space. Three dimensional objects have length, height, and width.


A silvery white metal that is lightweight with a high strength-to-weight ratio. Titanium has corrosion resistance.


A range of acceptable part dimensions. Tolerances indicate the allowable difference between a physical feature and its intended design.


Material that has chemical additives that change its behavior. Treated lumber can withstand environmental elements without corrosion.


A drawing that consists of all the lines that illustrate the shape of the part. The multiple views often contained within a blueprint convey all of a part's design elements.


A workholding device with one fixed jaw and one moveable jaw. Vises are often used to hold simple workpieces.


A joining process that uses heat, pressure, friction, or a combination of methods to fuse two materials together permanently. Welding is used in a variety of industries from auto manufacturing to aerospace engineering.

welding helmet

A heat-resistant head covering that protects against burns and eye damage. Welding helmets prevent burns from spatter and sparks and contain a darkened lens to protect the eyes from a welding arc.


The process of securely supporting, locating, and clamping a workpiece. Workholding devices include vises and clamps.


A part that is being fabricated. A workpiece may be subject to machining, grinding, welding, or other operations.

zoning ordinances

A technique of land management in which authorities divide land into zones. Different zoning ordinances allow for different acceptable uses, such as land zoned for residential or commercial use.