Cybersecurity Tools and Methods 205
This class describes common tools for effective cybersecurity strategies in advanced manufacturing. By adopting smart manufacturing technology, worksites are increasingly exposed to cybersecurity threats through wireless networks and errors by human users. Facilities can implement a range of administrative, technological, and physical cybersecurity tools to protect all of their assets. In addition, standards from leading organizations like NIST and ISO set guiding objectives for effective cybersecurity programs. Effective cybersecurity measures enable worksites to prevent threats like operational disruption, intellectual property theft, and unauthorized access.
After taking this course, learners should understand common cybersecurity tools and standards for cybersecurity best practices. These resources allow organizations to safely participate in and benefit from advanced manufacturing technologies. In addition, they can minimize damage and aid in data recovery after a breach.
Number of Lessons 11
- Cybersecurity for Smart Manufacturing
- Layers of Risk
- Cybersecurity Standards
- Review: Challenges to Cybersecurity
- Administrative Tools
- Technological Tools
- Physical Tools
- Review: Tools for Cybersecurity
- Resilient Cybersecurity Programs
- Establishing a Cybersecurity Program
- Final Review
- Describe the importance of cybersecurity in smart manufacturing.
- Identify the layers of risk present in IIoT architectures.
- Describe common cybersecurity standards.
- Describe administrative tools for cybersecurity.
- Describe technological tools for cybersecurity.
- Describe physical tools for cybersecurity.
- Describe the characteristics of a resilient cybersecurity response.
- Describe how to implement an effective cybersecurity program.
A cybersecurity measure that shapes cybersecurity culture or specifies the intent of cybersecurity protocols. Administrative tools include implementing policies, procedures, and education for cybersecurity and using simple technology solutions like app vetting and passwords.
A type of security software that protects against various types of malware. Many anti-malware products protect against the latest malware to stay up to date on current threats.
A type of security software that protects against common viruses, worms, trojans, and other known malware threats. Antivirus software must recognize a threat in order to protect against it.
The process of verifying that an application meets an organization's cybersecurity requirements. Application control software allows system administrators to ensure that only the software necessary and safe for operating a system is allowed to run.
Software or a program that is designed for mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets. Applications, or apps, are a way of interacting with smart devices.
An individual who is approved to access a system. Allowing only authorized users to access a system reduces network traffic and the risk of some cyberthreats.
The part of a computer system or application that is not directly accessed by the user. Backend systems typically store and manipulate data and code.
Successful attacks on and violations of security protecting sensitive or confidential data. Breaches can be resolved by following cybersecurity standards, such as the NIST CSF.
business continuity management strategy
BCMS. A plan that allows an organization to continue to operate or deliver products or services at an acceptable level following a disruptive event. The ISO 22301 cybersecurity standard establishes a business continuity management strategy.
CCTV. A system of television signals monitored for security and surveillance purposes. Closed-circuit television often uses cameras and monitors to transmit and view signal input.
People that perform illegal activities on computers, the internet, or other related electronic devices. Cybercriminals include hackers that steal personal data from users.
A network of physical and digital objects and processes that are connected. Cyber-physical systems are necessary for all smart manufacturing and IIoT architectures to increase the capabilities of devices.
Protection against criminal or unauthorized access to computer networks, programs, and data. Cybersecurity has become a major industrial concern as networking and connectivity have increased.
Employee values, attitudes, and behaviors towards cybersecurity. Cybersecurity culture can determine how often employees engage in risky online behaviors or if they understand the value of cybersecurity policies.
An established policy regarding a particular practice or method for cybersecurity. Cybersecurity standards exist for a range of required and recommended cyberthreats or specific industries and are developed by organizations that include the IEC, ISO, and NIST.
Any potential event or attack that could access or damage computers or digital networks. Cybersecurity threats may include inadvertent events or malicious attacks from hackers.
The process of restoring data that has been lost, accidentally deleted, corrupted, or made inaccessible. Data recovery can reduce losses and damage from a cyberthreat.
A network of participants and devices within a computer system. Ecosystems include individual users, processes, and devices.
The process of transforming data into another form that can only be accessed using a decryption key. Encryption protects data when it moves from a trusted to an untrusted area.
A software program or hardware device that allows intended internet communications over a network while blocking access to unauthorized users or websites. Firewalls can be installed on a digital system like other software packages.
The part of a computer system or application that a user interacts with directly. Frontend systems organize code and data and present them in a functional way for the user.
The access and use of a network by unauthorized persons or devices. Hacking typically comes from outside the network.
The physical equipment used in a computer system. IIoT hardware includes sensors, wireless routers, and computing devices.
A cybersecurity standard developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission that provides guidance on improving security for OT and industrial control systems. IEC 62443 offers similar guidance to NIST 800-82.
The relationship between all devices, networks, websites, programs, and cloud technology used in a single manufacturing setting. An IIoT architecture describes how IIoT devices communicate with each other and relate to other business functions.
industrial control systems
An automatic mechanism used to manage dynamic processes by adjusting or maintaining physical variables. Industrial control systems allow for more precise and repeatable processes across networks of manufacturing processes and equipment.
Industrial Internet of Things
IIoT. A network of physical devices used in manufacturing that contain computing systems that allow them to send and receive data. The Industrial Internet of Things allows devices to exchange data and automate processes without any human intervention.
IT. The use of computer systems for storing, processing, retrieving, and sending data. Information technology includes devices that create, process, or store electronic data, such as computers and smartphones.
intellectual property theft
IP theft. The act of stealing any idea, creative expression, or knowledge that originated from, or is owned by, an individual or organization. Intellectual property theft can violate patents, copyrights, and trademarks.
International Electrotechnical Commission
IEC. An international organization that prepares and publishes all standards for electrical, electronic, and related technologies. The International Electrotechnical Commission develops standards that are applied in Europe and other countries.
International Organization for Standardization
ISO. An organization that establishes documented standards, rules, and guidelines to ensure that products, processes, and services are fit for their purpose. The International Organization for Standardization develops cybersecurity standards like ISO 22301.
A local or private communication network accessible only to authorized users. Some intranet networks allow access to the internet.
IoT Identity and Access Management
IAM. Policies and technology preventing unauthorized access to devices or access to networks from unauthorized devices. IoT Identity and Access Management helps identify devices and manage data.
Intellectual property theft. The act of stealing any idea, creative expression, or knowledge that originated from, or is owned by, an individual or organization. IP theft can violate patents, copyrights, and trademarks.
A cybersecurity standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization for a business continuity management strategy. ISO 22301 promotes prevention of disruptive cyberthreats and disaster recovery.
Information technology. The use of computer systems for storing, processing, retrieving, and sending data. IT includes devices that create, process, or store electronic data, such as computers and smartphones.
The connection between information technology and operational technology systems that allows them to transmit data to each other. IT/OT convergence can pose a risk to cybersecurity when users from each group add technology too quickly to a system or do not communicate about cyberthreats.
A delay between user input and the reaction of the server supporting a task. Lag can occur from update paradoxes and cause interruptions or downtime.
An outdated piece of hardware or computing software that is still in use. Legacy systems are typically less secure and may not interact with new systems.
machine control unit
MCU. A small, powerful computer that controls and operates a CNC machine. The MCU is also known as the controller and interprets the numerical data in the part program to guide machine movement.
Any malicious code or software that can potentially harm a computer, device, or network, or retrieve data from the network or device without authorization. Malware often exists undetected on systems for extended periods of time.
The part of a computer system or application that manages the difference between coding languages, operating systems, or other functions. Middleware bridges the gap between backend and frontend systems.
MFA. An electronic verification method in which a user provides two or more unique identifiers to gain access to a digital system. Multi-factor authentication often requires users to enter one-time passwords or respond to prompts.
National Institute of Standards and Technology
NIST. A non-regulatory federal agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is a primary resource for developing cybersecurity standards and protocols.
A group of hardware devices connected through a cable or by wireless methods. A network allows multiple devices to communicate and share information.
National Institute of Standards and Technology. A non-regulatory federal agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST is a primary resource for developing cybersecurity standards and protocols.
A cybersecurity standard developed by NIST that provides guidance on improving security for OT and industrial control systems. NIST 800-82 is often used in conjunction with the NIST cybersecurity framework.
NIST Cybersecurity Framework. A cybersecurity standard developed by NIST for critical U.S. industries. The NIST cybersecurity framework shares similar objectives with many other standards and is based on five functions: Identify, Protect, Detect, Respond, and Recover.
NIST Cybersecurity Framework
NIST CSF. A cybersecurity standard developed by NIST for critical U.S. industries. The NIST cybersecurity framework shares similar objectives with many other standards and is based on five functions: Identify, Protect, Detect, Respond, and Recover.
A temporary authorization code or dynamic password that is only valid once. A one-time password is typically used by a multi-factor authentication application to verify that a user is signing onto a device.
OT. A system comprised of hardware and software that controls industrial operations. Operational technology often overlaps with information technology but uses the same devices in different ways.
Operational technology. A system comprised of hardware and software that controls industrial operations. OT often overlaps with information technology but uses the same devices in different ways.
A series of characters, known only by authorized users, that allow the users to access an otherwise locked digital system. Passwords effectively prevent unauthorized access as long as they are not shared or discovered by unauthorized users.
A cybersecurity measure that protects real-world assets from theft or damage. Physical tools include limiting access to areas where devices are stored and protecting cyber-physical devices from cyberattacks.
portable storage devices
A small hard drive that is external from other computer equipment and used to hold data. Portable storage devices can be connected to networks and computers, and include USB drives.
Able to withstand, recover from, or adapt to new cybersecurity threats. Resilient cybersecurity programs address a variety of threats for all assets in an IIoT architecture.
The organization and maintenance of a network or device to protect it from unnecessary cybersecurity gaps. Secure configurations are created by replacing default settings or passwords on devices, adding encryption, and removing pre-installed applications.
A software fix that corrects coding flaws or improves vulnerabilities. Security patches are often included with software updates.
A device that detects the presence or absence of an object, or certain properties of that object, and provides feedback. Common sensor applications include parts detection, positioning, and motion control.
A device that secures or opens its locking mechanisms based on an input from an electronic device. Smart locks are often controlled by computers, smart phones, or other electronic devices connected via WIFI or Bluetooth technology.
The information-driven, event-driven, efficient and collaborative orchestration of business, physical, and digital processes within plants, within factories, and across the entire value chain. Smart manufacturing increases connectivity between all areas of product development.
The coded instructions or programs that control computer hardware functions and operations. Software allows operators to perform a specific function on a computer, such as creating 3D part models or running robot simulations.
Any person or group that has an interest in an organization. A manufacturer's stakeholders include employees, investors, suppliers, and customers.
A person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems. System administrators can control access to networks by implementing security tools like firewalls and app vetting.
A cybersecurity measure that protects data with in-depth software solutions or other hardware. Technological tools include firewalls, anti-malware and antivirus software, and creating secure configurations.
The flow or transfer of data between computational devices. High traffic volumes can slow down or disable systems in a network and create more risk for cybersecurity.
A contradictory effect that occurs when improved cybersecurity measures create new risks or cause systems to malfunction. Update paradoxes are more likely to occur in legacy systems.
virtual private networks
VPN. A secure, encrypted connection that extends a private network through the internet to allow users to connect to the network remotely. Virtual private networks are essential to keep data on a private network secure when accessing the data remotely, especially from a public internet connection.
A type of malware that copies itself onto a computer or device by attaching to existing code. Viruses must be transferred by a user in order to spread to other systems.
Any item or process that does not add value to a product. Scrap and waiting are common forms of waste.