Condition Monitoring 275
This class describes the various techniques used to monitor and analyze the condition of machines and other equipment in smart manufacturing. Condition monitoring uses sensors, testing equipment, and software tools to detect defects in machine components and systems. Types of condition monitoring include electrical monitoring, electromagnetic monitoring, vibration analysis, ultrasonic monitoring, temperature monitoring, oil and water quality monitoring, radiographic monitoring, and laser interferometry.
After completing this class, users will better understand how the different types of monitoring techniques available can be used to detect specific quality risks, as well as how condition monitoring can help manufacturers maintain the quality and reliability of their equipment and prevent costly downtime and repairs.
Number of Lessons 10
- Condition Monitoring
- Electrical Monitoring
- Electromagnetic Monitoring
- Vibration Analysis and Ultrasonic Monitoring
- Condition Monitoring Types Review
- Temperature Monitoring
- Oil and Water Quality Monitoring
- Radiographic Monitoring
- Laser Interferometry
- Condition Monitoring Types Review
- Describe condition monitoring.
- Describe electrical monitoring.
- Describe electromagnetic monitoring.
- Describe vibration analysis and ultrasonic monitoring.
- Describe temperature monitoring.
- Describe oil and water quality monitoring.
- Describe radiographic monitoring.
- Describe laser interferometry.
A sensor that detects movement and speed. Accelerometers are used to detect and measure vibration.
acoustic emission testing
A nondestructive testing method that detects sound waves created by stress in a material. Acoustic emission testing detects cracks, corrosion, or other forms of damage in the material.
A technique used to measure the distance between two objects by transmitting and receiving acoustic signals between them. Acoustic ranging involves the use of specialized sensors and software algorithms to measure the time delay between the transmission and reception of the acoustic signals and calculate the distance based on the speed of sound in the medium.
A mathematical process designed to systematically solve a problem. Complex digital algorithms allow machine learning models to predict and regulate operations.
Any unexpected or abnormal deviation from the normal operating conditions or behavior of a system, process, or product. Anomalies can indicate a potential defect, malfunction, or failure.
battery impedance testing
A method of measuring the internal resistance of a battery to assess its health and performance. Battery impedance testing involves applying a small AC current to the battery and measuring the voltage response, which can provide information about the state of charge, capacity, and impedance of the battery.
Any damage or defect that affects the performance and reliability of a rolling element bearing. Bearing faults can result from various factors, such as wear, contamination, misalignment, overloading, and poor lubrication, and can lead to symptoms such as vibration, noise, heat, and premature failure of the bearing.
broadband vibration analysis
A technique used to monitor and analyze the vibration signals of a mechanical system or equipment over a wide frequency range. Broadband vibration analysis involves the use of specialized sensors and software tools to measure and process the vibration signals and extract information about the system's condition.
A temperature measurement technique that involves comparing the temperature of an unknown object with the temperature of a known reference object. Comparative thermometry involves the use of specialized thermometers and software tools to measure and analyze the temperature difference between the two objects and provide information about the temperature of the unknown object.
CR. A nondestructive testing technique used to inspect and analyze the internal structures of materials and products. Computed radiography involves the use of X-ray radiation and specialized digital imaging systems to capture and process high-resolution images of a sample, which can be used to detect defects, cracks, or corrosion.
CT. A scanning procedure that utilizes specialized X-ray equipment to generate detailed geometric information about an object. Computed tomography can be used to gather information about the internal features of a part as well as its external features.
A process of monitoring the state of a system or equipment to detect any potential faults or defects. Condition monitoring involves the use of sensors and other tracking tools to continuously collect data on the system's performance and analyze it to predict and prevent failures.
Able to act as a path for the movement of electricity. Conductive materials, which include many types of metals, form magnetic fields when energized.
A process by which a material gradually degrades or wears away. Corrosion typically occurs when a material is exposed to the atmosphere, moisture, or other substances.
A device used to measure the electrical current flowing through a conductor or circuit. Current sensors detect the magnetic field generated by the current and convert it into an electrical signal that can be processed and analyzed to determine the current level.
A change in the size or shape of an object as a result of stress. Deformation may be intentional or an accidental consequence.
The separation of the layers in a laminate. Delamination can occur locally, in a small area of the laminate, or it can affect the entire laminate.
A high-resolution imaging device that captures the interference pattern produced by the interaction of coherent light with a sample. A digital camera captures images that are then processed and analyzed to obtain information about the shape, position, and motion of a sample with high accuracy.
A technique used to capture and analyze the holographic interference pattern produced by the interaction of coherent light with a sample. Digital holography allows for the reconstruction of a 3D image of the object or sample.
Electronic systems that use binary digits to represent and process information. Digital systems are composed of hardware and software components that work together to perform specific functions.
DR. A nondestructive testing technique used in manufacturing to inspect and analyze the internal structures of materials and products. Direct radiography involves the use of X-ray radiation and a collimated beam of X-rays to produce high-quality images of specific areas of interest, which can be used to detect defects, cracks, and other anomalies.
The period of time when a machine or system is not operating and is not producing or performing work. Downtime due to unscheduled service or maintenance can have a negative impact on overall production efficiency.
eddy current testing
ECT. A nondestructive testing method that uses electromagnetic induction to locate surface and near-surface discontinuities and defects. Eddy current testing is limited to use on electrically conductive materials.
The process of measuring and analyzing electrical parameters such as voltage, current, power, and frequency to assess the performance, health, and efficiency of electrical systems and equipment. Electrical monitoring involves the use of specialized instruments and techniques to identify potential issues, troubleshoot problems, and optimize the operation of electrical systems.
A power transmission system that uses the force of flowing electrons to transmit power. Electrical systems use a network of components, including generators, power lines, and transformers.
A process of measuring and analyzing electromagnetic fields to assess the performance and health of electrical and electronic systems and equipment. Electromagnetic monitoring involves the use of specialized sensors and techniques to detect and analyze the electromagnetic waves emitted by the systems and equipment and provide information about their operation and condition.
A type of testing that examines particles present in oil and other lubricants. Ferrography can determine if components are breaking down and if lubricants need to be replaced.
A material or substance that is easily magnetized and exhibits a strong attraction to magnetic fields. Ferromagnetic materials are often metals, including iron, cobalt, nickel, manganese, and various alloys.
The area of variation of frequencies that a system, device, or signal can detect, transmit, or process. Frequency range is usually defined by the lowest and highest frequencies that the system or device can handle and is often expressed in hertz (Hz) or kilohertz (kHz).
Flaws in shape, including cracks, internal voids, and through holes. Geometry defects occur in a material due to manufacturing imperfections.
A two-dimensional (2D) photographic record of the interference pattern produced by the interaction of laser light with an object or sample. A hologram can be reconstructed into a 3D image of the sample, providing information about its shape, position, and motion.
A technique used to measure the deformation, shape, and motion of objects or structures by recording and analyzing the interference patterns produced by the interaction of coherent light with a sample. Holographic interferometry allows for nondestructive testing and inspection of materials and components in real-time and with high precision.
A substance that is unintentionally present in a metal and often has undesirable properties. Inclusions tend to be harder than the metal itself and reduce machinability.
A thermal inspection device that uses infrared technology to produce a visual representation of temperature conditions. Infrared cameras are also called thermal imagers.
Material that does not allow for the easy flow of electricity. Insulation is used to prevent electrical shock.
A pattern of alternating bright and dark fringes that result from the superposition of two or more coherent light waves. The interference pattern reflects the difference in phase and amplitude between the waves and can be analyzed to provide information about the shape, position, and motion of objects with high accuracy.
An intense beam of coherent, collimated, monochromatic light that can be precisely aimed and controlled. Laser beams can be used for cutting, welding, measurement, and condition monitoring.
A precise measurement technique used to measure and analyze the shape, position, and motion of objects with high accuracy. Laser interferometry involves the use of laser beams and optical interferometers to compare and analyze the phase shifts and interference patterns of the light waves reflected from the sample, which can provide information about the surface profile, roughness, alignment, and vibration characteristics of an object.
A nondestructive testing technique used to detect and analyze material defects or structural irregularities by sending ultrasonic waves through a sample using a laser-based system. Laser ultrasonics is useful for detecting defects in materials that are difficult to inspect using traditional ultrasonic testing methods.
A temperature measurement technique that uses modulated light or current to measure the temperature of a material. Lock-in thermometry involves the use of specialized detectors and software algorithms to measure and analyze the amplitude and phase of the modulated signal and provide information about the temperature of the material with high sensitivity and accuracy.
A substance used to reduce friction between two surfaces in relative motion. Oil and grease are common industrial lubricants.
ML. The process that enables a digital system to analyze data in order to detect patterns and build predictive models. Machine learning systematically analyzes data inputs using highly complex algorithms.
magnetic field sensors
A device that can detect and measure the strength and direction of magnetic fields in its vicinity. Magnetic field sensors use the principles of magnetism to convert the magnetic field into an electrical signal, which can then be processed and analyzed to determine the characteristics of the field.
magnetic flux leakage testing
A nondestructive testing method used to detect and locate surface and sub-surface defects in ferromagnetic materials. Magnetic flux leakage testing involves inducing a magnetic field in the material and then measuring the magnetic flux leakage around the defects using specialized sensors, which can provide information about the size, shape, and location of the defects.
magnetic particle inspection
A nondestructive testing method that involves magnetizing a part and covering it with tiny iron oxide particles that accumulate in any cracks or seams. Magnetic particle inspection can reveal discontinuities on highly magnetic materials.
Adjusted settings, such as frequency, strength, or temperature. Modulated heating sources are set to a known, controlled temperature.
motor circuit monitoring
A technique used to monitor the performance and health of electric motors by measuring the electrical signals in their circuits. Motor circuit monitoring involves the use of specialized sensors and software tools to detect and analyze the voltage, current, power, and other parameters of the motor, and provide information about its operating condition, efficiency, and potential faults or issues.
Nondestructive testing. A category of inspection processes that evaluate a part's properties and performance using methods that do not damage or permanently alter the part. NDT methods can be used to locate defects in parts.
A measurement method that inspects a part without actually touching it. Non-contact measurement instruments often use light to inspect a part.
NDT. A category of inspection processes that evaluate the properties and performance of a part or machine using methods that do not damage or permanently alter the part or machine. Nondestructive testing methods can be used to locate defects.
oil and water quality monitoring
The process of analyzing and tracking the quality of oils and lubricants used in manufacturing processes to ensure their effectiveness and longevity. Oil and water quality monitoring involves the use of various sensors, instruments, and software tools to measure and analyze parameters such as viscosity, pH, water content, and contaminants.
The time delay between the modulated input signal and the output response signal from the detector. The phase shift can provide information about the physical properties of the material being measured, such as thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity.
The measure of a material's ability to absorb or allow the flow of liquids and gasses. Porosity is often determined by the number of small spaces, or voids, within a solid material.
presence of water tests
A process that detects the presence and quantity of water in various products and materials, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemicals. Presence of water tests measure water content and provide information about the quality and suitability of the products for their intended use.
Upkeep performed while a component is in working order to keep it from breaking down. Preventive maintenance includes lubricating, tightening, and replacing worn parts.
A temperature measurement technique that uses high-speed infrared sensors to capture and analyze the thermal radiation emitted by an object. Pulse thermometry involves the measurement of the time-dependent thermal signal generated by the surface of an object in response to a short, intense light pulse, which can provide accurate and fast temperature measurements of the object.
A nondestructive testing method that uses electromagnetic radiation, in the form of x-rays or gamma rays, to produce a picture of the internal structure of a material. Radiographic monitoring, also known as radiography, detects defects in a material, which appear as dark spots.
A nondestructive testing method that uses electromagnetic radiation, in the form of x-rays or gamma rays, to produce a picture of the internal structure of a material. Radiography, also known as radiographic monitoring, detects defects in a material, which appear as dark spots.
A device that detects a change in a physical stimulus and turns it into a signal that can be measured or recorded. Sensors may be connected to a machine or system in order to collect operational data that is later analyzed.
shock pulse analysis
A technique used to assess the health and condition of rotating machinery, such as bearings and gears. Shock pulse analysis involves measuring the high-frequency shock pulses generated by the impacts of rolling elements on the surfaces of the machinery and analyzing the signals to identify faults, defects, and other anomalies that may affect the performance and reliability of the machinery.
A method of manufacturing designed to improve product design and processes through the integration of information technology throughout the supply chain. Smart manufacturing increases connectivity between all areas of product development.
A set of digitized programs and operating procedures. Software can determines the actions or performance of a machines electrical connections.
A vibration, or disturbance, of matter caused by the movement of energy. The high-frequency sound waves used in ultrasonic testing are beyond the range of normal human hearing.
A technique used to analyze the chemical composition of materials and products. Spectroscopy identifies and quantifies the chemical elements and compounds present in the sample to detect impurities and defects.
The ability of a material to hold together under a load, including its own weight. Structural integrity may be compromised by material defects.
A type of electrical testing used to assess the insulation strength of electrical systems and equipment. Surge testing involves the application of high-voltage surges to the system or equipment and measuring the response to the surges, which can reveal the presence of insulation weaknesses, such as voids, cracks, or contaminants.
The process of measuring and recording the temperature of a system, equipment, or environment to monitor and control its performance, efficiency, and safety. Temperature monitoring, also called thermography, involves the use of various sensors, instruments, and software tools to measure and analyze the temperature data and provide information about the system's operation and condition.
A device used to measure the temperature of a system or environment. Thermal sensors work by detecting the thermal energy emitted by the system or environment and converting it into an electrical signal that can be processed and analyzed to determine the temperature.
The process of measuring and recording the temperature of a system, equipment, or environment to monitor and control its performance, efficiency, and safety. Thermography, also called temperature monitoring, involves the use of various sensors, instruments, and software tools to measure and analyze the temperature data and provide information about the system's operation and condition.
3D. Having or appearing to have length, breadth, and depth. Three-dimensional images show an object's shape better than two-dimensional (2D) images.
A nondestructive testing method that uses high-frequency sound waves to discover surface and interior defects. In ultrasonic monitoring, changes in the signal indicate flaws.
A maintenance technique that measures levels of machine vibration in order to determine if the machine is functioning properly. In vibration analysis, increases in vibration usually indicate a problem.
An electromagnetic wave with a high frequency and low wavelength used in radiographic testing. X-rays are used to view the interior of solid objects.