Bloodborne Pathogens 161
This class explains the nature of common bloodborne pathogens and how to handle exposure in the workplace. A bloodborne pathogen is a microorganism present in human blood that can cause disease. Common pathogens include HIV, which causes AIDS, HBV, which causes hepatitis B, and HCV, which causes hepatitis C. Exposure to blood can occur in the workplace through work-related tasks and procedures, through accidents, or by administering first aid. To avoid exposure, workers should observe the universal precautions recommended by the CDC. Employers are required by OSHA to implement controls to minimize exposures in the workplace.
Employees who understand how to protect themselves from bloodborne pathogen exposure make the workplace safer for everyone. After taking this class, users should be able to describe OSHA regulations regarding bloodborne pathogens and how they impact day-to-day operations in the workplace.
Number of Lessons 22
- Risk of Exposure
- Bloodborne Pathogens: HIV and AIDS
- Bloodborne Pathogens: Hepatitis B and C
- Occupational Exposure
- Bloodborne Viruses Review
- Universal Precautions
- Employee Training
- Exposure Control Plan
- Engineering Controls
- Work Practice Controls
- Personal Protective Equipment
- Exposure Prevention Review
- Biohazard Warning Labels
- Handling Contaminated Laundry
- Responding to Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure
- Exposure Risk Review
- Treatment for Exposure
- Reporting an Exposure
- Post-Exposure Follow-Up
- Medical Recordkeeping
- Sharps Injury Log
- Exposure Treatment and Reporting Review
- Identify workers who are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
- Describe bloodborne pathogens.
- Describe bloodborne pathogens.
- Describe how occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens occurs.
- Describe the universal precautions that protect against bloodborne pathogens.
- Describe the bloodborne pathogen training provided to employees.
- Describe an exposure control plan.
- Describe engineering controls for bloodborne pathogens.
- Describe work practice controls for bloodborne pathogens.
- Describe personal protective equipment used for reducing exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
- Explain biohazard warning label requirements.
- Describe the safe handling of contaminated laundry.
- Describe the actions to take if exposed to bloodborne pathogens.
- Describe treatment for exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
- Describe the process of reporting an exposure.
- Describe what actions should be taken after treatment for exposure.
- Describe workplace medical recordkeeping requirements.
- Describe workplace sharps injury log requirements.
Any individual who is exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials, such as bodily fluids. Affected individuals, as well as source individuals, may be asked to consent to blood testing in the event of an exposure.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the most severe stage of the HIV virus, which destroys the human immune system.
A treatment for HIV infection. Antiretroviral drugs inhibit the growth of harmful cells associated with HIV.
A type of protective clothing worn over existing clothing. Aprons create an extra barrier between bloodborne pathogens and the skin of the upper and lower body.
Biological material that poses a threat to human health and safety. Biohazards include medical waste and anything potentially contaminated with bloodborne pathogens.
Any microorganism present in human blood and other bodily fluids that can cause disease. Bloodborne pathogens include the hepatitis B virus, the hepatitis C virus, and HIV.
Liquid parts of the body. Bodily fluids include blood and mucous.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An agency that develops and applies disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education. The CDC is part of the Department of Health and Human Services.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDC. An agency that develops and applies disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are part of the Department of Health and Human Services.
Persisting for a long time or constantly recurring. Chronic illnesses, like hepatitis C, may affect people for the rest of their lives.
Chronic liver damage in which the liver becomes scarred, fibrous, and filled with fat. Cirrhosis hinders normal liver function.
To use chemicals to kill germs on surfaces. Disinfecting does not clean a surface and should be used after cleaning to eliminate remaining germs.
Precautionary measures that isolate or remove risk of bloodborne pathogens exposure from the workplace. Engineering controls include safer medical devices, such as needleless systems.
exposure control plan
A written action plan that specifies precautionary measures taken to manage and minimize potential exposure to bloodborne pathogens in the workplace. An exposure control plan includes engineering and work practice controls, as well as guidelines for personal protective equipment use.
Protective hand covers made from a variety of materials to protect the hands from hazards. Gloves reduce the risk of injury and exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
Tight-fitting eye protection that completely covers the eyes, the sockets, and the surrounding facial area. Goggles offer protection from impact, dust, and splashes.
A protective body cover with long sleeves that extends down below the waist. Gowns reduce the risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
Hepatitis B Virus. A virus that causes the acute or chronic viral liver disease hepatitis B. HBV is the most contagious form of viral hepatitis.
Hepatitis C Virus. A virus that causes the acute or chronic viral liver disease hepatitis C. HCV can cause severe liver damage.
Proteins produced by the immune system to fight the hepatitis C virus. Employees exposed to HCV should have HCV antibody levels tested four to six months after initial testing.
An acute or chronic viral liver disease caused by HBV. Hepatitis B is the most contagious form of viral hepatitis.
hepatitis B immune globulin
HBIG. A protein found in human blood that fights the hepatitis B infection. HBIG is often given to a person exposed to hepatitis B if they have never previously been vaccinated.
hepatitis B vaccine
An inoculation that protects or prevents people from contracting hepatitis B. The hepatitis B vaccine is usually a series of three shots that help an infected person build antibodies against the disease.
An acute or chronic viral liver disease caused by HCV. Hepatitis C can cause severe liver damage.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV attacks the human immune system and causes the disease AIDS.
Created to reduce the likelihood of allergic reactions. Hypoallergenic equipment is made with materials for which people usually do not have an allergy.
A document in which the employer reports incidents involving injury and bloodborne pathogen exposure. An incident report details exactly what happened in the incident.
To flush the eyes with water or saline. Eyes should be irrigated immediately after exposure to blood or bodily fluids.
A microscopic building block of the liver that secretes bile. Viral hepatitis can damage liver cells, causing severe and life-threatening dysfunction.
A protein produced by the liver that helps speed up chemical reactions such as metabolism, filtration, storage, and excretion. Employees exposed to HCV should have liver enzyme levels tested four to six months after initial testing.
Cover that protects the nose and mouth. Masks reduce the risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
An organism of microscopic size. Some microorganisms are harmful, such as bacteria or viruses that cause disease.
A lining that coats body parts exposed to the outside world and internal organs. Mucous membranes often, but do not always, secrete mucous.
An injection system that uses a blunt tube to deliver medication through a plastic portal beneath the skin. Needleless systems help to prevent needlestick injuries from occurring by removing the existence of a needle.
A wound caused by penetration of the skin by a needle. Needlestick injuries can cause transmission of bloodborne pathogens.
The potential for skin, eye, mucous membrane, or injected contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials to occur at the worksite. Occupational exposure can occur through work-related tasks or accidents or by administering first aid.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA. A government agency under the U.S. Department of Labor that sets the standards for working conditions in the United States. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration ensures that employees work in safe and healthy environments.
Other potentially infectious materials. Materials other than blood that can harbor bloodborne pathogens. OPIMs include cerebrospinal fluid, the liquid found in the brain and spine.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A government agency under the U.S. Department of Labor that sets the standards for working conditions in the United States. OSHA ensures that employees work in safe and healthy environments.
OSHA form 300
A document in which employers are required to log any work-related injuries or illnesses. OSHA form 300 should include information on how and why an injury or illness happened, as well as its severity.
other potentially infectious materials
OPIM. Materials other than blood that can harbor bloodborne pathogens. Other potentially infectious materials include cerebrospinal fluid, the liquid found in the brain and spine.
personal protective equipment
PPE. Safety equipment that a person wears or uses to prevent injury in the workplace. Gloves, gowns, goggles, and face masks are all examples of personal protective equipment.
PEP. A treatment of three or more antiretroviral drugs given immediately following exposure to HIV to prevent infection. Postexposure prophylaxis stops HIV's ability to replicate in the bloodstream.
Personal protective equipment. Safety equipment that a person wears or uses to prevent injury in the workplace. Gloves, gowns, goggles, and face masks are all examples of PPE.
Personal protective equipment that covers the eyes. Protective eyewear includes goggles and safety glasses.
A sterile solution of salt water. Saline is used to irrigate the eyes and nose.
A needle with a cover that the user can slide back over the needle after use. In self-resheathing needles, the cover, or sheath, locks into place.
A non-needle device used for cutting or puncturing. Sharps include knives and syringes.
sharps injury log
A document in which employers are required to log any work-related injuries that occur from contaminated sharps. The sharps injury log should include the details and location of each incident.
Any individual whose blood or other potentially infectious materials may be a source of occupational exposure to the employee. Source individuals, as well as affected individuals, may be asked to consent to blood testing in the event of an exposure.
Remove, kill, or deactivate all forms of life present in or on a specific surface, object, or fluid. Sterilization can be achieved through various means, including heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration.
Recommendations developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to control the spread of infectious diseases. Universal precautions treat all human blood and bodily fluids as infectious.
A virus that causes inflammation of the liver or severe liver damage. Viral hepatitis has several forms, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, F, and G.
The amount of virus in an infected person’s blood. Viral load is expressed as the number of viral particles in each milliliter of blood.
white blood cells
Cells of the human immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. White blood cells are attacked by HIV.
work practice controls
Precautionary measures that reduce the likelihood of exposure to bloodborne pathogens by altering the way a task or procedure is performed. Work practice controls include immediately washing hands after removing gloves.
A post-exposure report written by an approved healthcare provider. The written opinion should include such information as whether the hepatitis B vaccine was recommended to the worker.