Continuous Process Improvement: Managing Flow 124
This class covers the principles of continuous process improvement and the tools used to implement it.
Number of Lessons 18
- Continuous Process Improvement
- Focus on the Process
- Single Piece Flow
- Organizing Around Flow
- Takt Time and Cycle Time
- Value Stream Maps and Product Families
- Value Stream Mapping: Current State and Future State
- Value Stream Mapping Symbols: Process Icons
- Value Stream Mapping Symbols: Material Icons
- Value Stream Mapping Symbols: Information Icons
- Value Stream Mapping Symbols: Miscellaneous Icons
- Visual Management
- The Steps of 5S
- Other Tools for Visual Management
- Pull Systems and Kanban
- The Types of Kanban
- Define the lean principle of continuous process improvement.
- Differentiate between a process-focused business model and mass production.
- Describe single piece flow.
- Describe work cells.
- Describe the relationship between takt time and cycle time.
- Describe value stream maps and product families.
- Differentiate between current state and future state value stream maps.
- Describe process icons for value stream mapping.
- Describe material icons for value stream mapping.
- Describe information icons for value stream mapping.
- Describe miscellaneous icons for value stream mapping.
- Describe visual management in the lean workplace.
- Describe the steps of 5S.
- Describe production boards and check sheets.
- Describe the relationship between pull systems and kanban.
- Differentiate between production kanban and withdrawal kanban
A targeted list of activities that promotes organization and efficiency in the workplace. The 5S terms are sorting, straightening, shining, standardizing, and sustaining.
Deviating from standards.
Also known as a work unit. A specialized group of people, machines, tooling, and materials. Cells are designed to perform in sequence all the tasks needed to produce a part.
A visual tool for tracking data and making decisions. Tick marks in the form of a slash, a check mark, or an "X" are put into different cells of a table to create a graphical representation of the data being tracked.
continuous process improvement
The ongoing effort to measure the effectiveness of processes, create more value for customers, and eliminate waste. The central idea of continuous improvement is that every process can and should be improved.
current state map
A visual tool that documents the current condition of a manufacturing environment. A current state value stream map captures all of the details of manufacturing processes just as they exist at the moment the map is produced, including any flaws or errors.
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the customer. The customer icon is usually situated in the upper right corner of the value stream map.
The journey of a part or process from the beginning to the end of a work unit.
The actual time it takes to perform a task and forward it to the next step. One of the major goals of lean is to match cycle time to the pace of customer demand.
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent any information related to a particular process.
Activities that take place toward the end of the value stream relative to an activity that takes place toward the beginning of the value stream.
economies of scale
An production strategy that decreases cost per unit by increasing the number of units produced.
Electronic Data Interchange. The standard data transmission between computers.
electronic info icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the flow of electronic information.
external shipment icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent shipments from suppliers or to customers.
FIFO lane icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent first-in-first-out inventory, an inventory management method in which the oldest product, or first product, is processed first and thus is the first to come out of the system.
FIFO inventory. An inventory management method in which the oldest product, or first product, is processed first and thus is the first to come out of the system.
future state map
A visual tool that shows how a value stream can look after improvements have been implemented. A future state value stream map is an ideal view of a value stream and represents the goal of a lean initiative.
go see icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which information must be gathered.
An image or picture used to signify an object or process.
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent raw materials before processing, parts in varying stages of completion between processes, or finished goods in storage before shipment to a customer.
kaizen burst icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area of the value stream at which attention from a kaizen workshop should be sought.
A small card or visual tool that signals the movement of parts within a pull system.
kanban post icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area of the value stream at which kanban signals are waiting for transport.
Adjusting processes so that all tasks performed in a cell are performed within the same amount of time. For example, if the first step takes 60 seconds, the second and third steps should also take 60 seconds.
A group of work cells tied together using kanban. Parts travel between cells in small batches but are fabricated one at a time within individual cells.
load leveling icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area at which production can be targeted and "smoothed out" over time.
manual info icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the flow of written or spoken information.
A traditional production method focused on making a product cheaply and easily through economies of scale.
material pull icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent areas of the stream where downstream processes connect to a supermarket.
Any form of measurement. Metrics are important in lean because everything that can be measured can be improved.
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a material requirements planning or enterprise resource planning scheduling system.
Activities that do not contribute to the product or the process and should therefore be eliminated. Non-value added steps are waste.
non-value added but essential
Production activities that ensure the value-added steps have been properly completed. For example, inspection does not contribute to the product, but it is necessary until the process can be improved to the point where inspection can be eliminated.
Conforming to standards.
one piece flow
Making and moving one piece at a time.
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a human operator in the value stream. Multiple operators are indicated by a number next to the operator icon.
other information icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to contain any other useful miscellaneous information that may be critical to defining the given value stream.
The series of activities required to complete a product or provide a service to a customer. A lean business model is process-focused.
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent an operation required to create the end product.
The process of switching from the production of one product or part number to another in a machine by changing parts, dies, molds, fixtures, etc.
Products that are grouped together based on the fact that they use the same machines or processes.
The movement of a product through the value stream.
A visual management tool used to track the relevant metrics of a process. Production boards can be used to track production rates.
production control icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the area of the map where control and scheduling decisions are made.
A kanban that contains all of the basic information about a batch, such as number and weight, plus details about what type of work should be accomplished within the cell.
production kanban icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which a visual signal asks for more parts from upstream processes.
A progressive, lean manufacturing method in which items are not delivered to a stage of the process until they are needed. Pull systems help reduce inventory.
A material management system in which parts are not delivered to machines until they are needed. Pull systems are based on actual demand for parts.
A value stream mapping symbol used to show on the map where products are being "pushed" through the system. In a push system, production is based on keeping up with preset inventory levels, due dates for customer orders, or demand forecasts.
A traditional manufacturing arrangement in which parts are produced based on keeping up with preset inventory levels, due dates for customer orders, or demand forecasts.
The movement of raw materials from a supplier to a manufacturing facility.
A method used in the sorting phase of 5S that involves placing tags on items to designate their status. Red tags indicate that an item should be removed from the work area.
A visual management tool used by a company to track progress on achieving its 5S goals.
safety stock icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent temporary inventory kept on hand to protect the stream from downtime.
sequenced pull icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area at which a pull system tells other processes to produce a product while bypassing the supermarket.
The movement of information through all of the stages of the process required to provide high quality service to the customer.
The third phase of 5S. In the shining phase, the work environment is thoroughly cleaned and maintenance tasks are identified.
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the shipping and receiving of goods. Receiving involves the movement of materials from suppliers, while shipping involves the movement of materials to customers.
The movement of materials from a manufacturing facility to a customer.
signal kanban icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which a kanban signal notifies processes upstream that the supermarket inventory levels are down to a minimum.
single piece flow
Making and moving one piece at a time.
A joining method that uses heated tin and lead to fuse parts together.
The first phase of 5S. In the sorting phase, unnecessary clutter is removed from the workplace.
The fourth phase of 5S. In the standardizing phase, methods for maintaining 5S throughout the workplace are identified and documented.
The second phase of 5S. In the straightening phase, the workplace is organized using techniques such as shadow boards and labeling.
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a stockpoint of inventory that supplies multiple downstream channels.
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the entity that provides raw materials. The supplier icon is usually situated in the upper left corner of the value stream map.
The fifth phase of 5S. In the sustaining phase, all employees must work together to continue and maintain 5S improvements.
The rate at which the customer requires your company to manufacture products. Takt time is the number of work minutes per day divided by the number of orders per day.
A graphical representation of a chronological sequence of events.
tool shadow board
A device used in the straightening phase of 5S to organize tools and materials. A shadow board contains outlines of designated tools to show where they should be stored.
Toyota Production System
A process management philosophy used to create high quality, low cost products with little waste or lead time.
Activities that take place toward the beginning of the value stream.
A real or perceived quality that satisfies the needs and wants of a customer. Value includes the features of a product, as well as other qualities associated with the product.
Any part of the production process that improves the product for the customer. For a process to be value added, a customer must be willing to pay for it.
The series of activities within a supply chain that add value from the perception of the customer. The value stream involves the series of activities needed to create a product.
value stream map
A sophisticated flow charting method that uses symbols, metrics, and arrows to help visualize processes and track performance. This method helps determine which steps of a process add value and which do not.
value stream mapping
The process of creating a visual layout of all the processes required to make a product.
verbal information icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which verbal interaction takes place.
Placing tools, parts, performance charts, and other items so that employees can gain immediate access to information that is critical to the production process and detect any abnormalities in that process.
Any element of the manufacturing process that does not add value to a product. The goal of lean manufacturing is to eliminate waste.
A kanban used to signal the movement of parts between cells. It contains just the basic information about the batch such as the number of pieces and weight.
withdrawal kanban icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which a visual signal asks for parts from a supermarket to be moved to a downstream process.
Also known as a work unit. A specialized group of people, machines, tooling, and materials designed to perform in sequence all the tasks needed to produce a part.
work cell icon
A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a group consisting of many processes, people, and machines used to efficiently produce one part in small batches.
Also known as a cell. A specialized group of people, machines, tooling, and materials designed to perform in sequence all the tasks needed to produce a part.