Introduction to Hybrid Manufacturing 151
Introduction to Hybrid Manufacturing 151 covers the basics of hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) applications. Hybrid AM combines the benefits of subtractive and additive manufacturing (AM) methods in a single digital workflow. Subtractive manufacturing, including machining and related processes, removes material from a workpiece to make complete parts with superior accuracy and surface quality. AM builds complete or partially complete parts by creating or fusing layers of raw material, which allows highly complex part geometry. Hybrid AM can be applied using separate, networked machines, but all-in-one hybrid AM machines can produce parts that are impossible to build using separate machines.
After taking this course, users will be familiar with the types of additive and subtractive manufacturing methods commonly used in hybrid AM applications. Users will also understand potential benefits of producing parts using hybrid AM, particularly with all-in-one hybrid machine.
Number of Lessons 10
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- Introduction to Hybrid Manufacturing
- Additive Versus Subtractive Manufacturing
- Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Tools
- Common Additive Processes for Hybrid Manufacturing
- Review: Hybrid Tools and Processes
- Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Workflows
- Advantages of Hybrid Additive Manufacturing
- Specialized Applications for Hybrid AM Machines
- Industry Applications for Hybrid AM
- Review: Hybrid AM Applications
- Describe hybrid manufacturing.
- Distinguish between additive and subtractive manufacturing.
- Describe tools used in hybrid additive manufacturing.
- Identify common additive processes used in hybrid manufacturing.
- Describe common hybrid AM production workflows.
- Describe the advantages of hybrid additive manufacturing tools.
- Explain how all-in-one hybrid machines facilitate unique product design.
- Describe the benefits of hybrid AM for various industries.
A material consisting of hard particles used to remove workpiece material. Abrasives are used in both heavy and light material removal.
AM. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object from a three-dimensional computer model. Additive manufacturing methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
The industry concerned with the research, design, manufacture, and operation of air and space craft. Aerospace products include airplanes, helicopters, rockets, missiles, satellites, space capsules, space planes, and related systems.
Additive manufacturing. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object from a three-dimensional computer model. AM methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
An area in which electricity jumps from an electrode on a tool to a workpiece. An arc melts the powdered metal or wire feedstock in directed energy deposition.
automatic tool changer
A CNC mill or machining center component that holds and changes tools during operation. Automatic tool changers reduce cycle times by automatically changing tools between functions.
A specific number of the same part that moves through the production cycle. Small batch manufacturers produce a variety of different products but in low volume.
A small, semi-finished piece of metal that is rectangular, circular, or square in shape. Billets are used in semi-solid molding.
The flat surface on which a part is additively manufactured. The build platform can either be a permanent machine surface from which parts are removed or a surface that can be removed from a machine once the build is complete.
Computer-aided design. A method of designing two- and three-dimensional objects using computers and software. CAD is most often used to create part models for production.
Computer-aided manufacturing. The use of computer software that facilitates the development of part programs to produce a part. CAM software applications create an image of the workpiece and develop the program code from information that the programmer inputs.
A workpiece formed by pouring molten metal into a mold and cooling it into a solid shape. Castings are near their finished shape directly after they are formed.
computer numerical control
CNC. A programmable system of software and hardware that directs the operation of a machine. Computer numerical control systems use mathematical data to direct machine movements.
CAD. A method of designing two- and three-dimensional objects using computers and software. Computer-aided design is most often used to create part models for production.
CAM. The use of computer software that facilitates the development of part programs to produce a part. Computer-aided manufacturing software applications create an image of the workpiece and develop the program code from information that the programmer inputs.
Cooling channel configurations that curve and closely correspond to a part's shape. Conformal cooling provides manufacturers with better heat management and allows them to reduce tool wear and cycle time.
Manufacturing a part with unique design variations. Customization is typically based on specific requests from customers.
Directed energy deposition. An additive manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to melt materials as they are deposited. DED is often used with powdered or wire metal feedstock.
A detailed plan for a part or object that includes dimensions and other precise descriptions of its manufacturing requirements. Design specifications are typically created using computer-aided design (CAD) software.
Consisting of information that is input or output electronically as a series of pulses or signals, often resulting in binary strings of 0s and 1s. Digital computing devices interpret various programming commands as binary digits.
directed energy deposition
DED. An additive manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to melt materials as they are deposited. Directed energy deposition is often used with powdered or wire metal feedstock.
A multi-point cutting tool used to create a round hole in a workpiece surface. Drills are common tools for holemaking operations on a CNC mill or lathe.
The ability of a material to act as a medium for conveying electricity. Metals such as copper and aluminum have high levels of electrical conductivity.
A defining characteristic on a component or part. Features include corners, edges, holes, and grooves.
A workpiece formed by compressing metal between two dies to achieve a specific shape. Forging operations typically heat the metal to an elevated temperature.
A manufacturing process that forms parts by shearing, stretching, bending, or compressing metal or other material. Forming processes do not create chips like subtractive processes.
A mechanical device on a robot that uses rotary and linear actuators to mimic the motion of the human hand. Grippers have complex shapes that can be easily produced using additive manufacturing.
hybrid additive manufacturing
Hybrid AM. A process that uses both traditional and additive manufacturing (AM) to create a finished part. Hybrid additive manufacturing involves combining additive and subtractive processes on a single machine.
Hybrid additive manufacturing. A process that uses both traditional and additive manufacturing (AM) to create a finished part. Hybrid AM typically involves combining additive and subtractive processes on a single machine.
hybrid machining center
A type of CNC machine that is capable of both additive manufacturing and traditional subtractive machining. Hybrid machining centers typically resemble the basic structure of a traditional CNC mill.
An manufacturing approach that produces parts by combining multiple manufacturing processes in a single digital workflow or on a single machine. Hybrid manufacturing may describe a variety of manufacturing processes combinations but is most often associated with combining additive and subtractive processes.
Industrial Internet of Things
IIoT. A network of physical devices used in manufacturing that contain computing systems that allow them to send and receive data. The Industrial Internet of Things allows devices to exchange data and automate processes without any human intervention.
An intense beam of light that can be precisely aimed and controlled. Lasers are sometimes used to selectively solidify or fuse materials in additive manufacturing methods, including directed energy deposition, powder bed fusion, and vat photopolymerization.
An approach to manufacturing that seeks to reduce the cycle time of processes, increase flexibility, and improve quality. Lean manufacturing approaches help to eliminate waste in all its forms.
The number of parts made with a particular tooling setup. A lot is composed of identical or similar parts or materials.
A manufacturing process that uses cutting tools to remove material to form an object. Machining includes methods such as milling, turning, and drilling.
Manufacturing a large number of uniquely designed variations on a part. Mass customization is a key advantage of additive manufacturing.
A container used to hold raw materials for use in an industrial process. Material hoppers used in metal AM processes hold powdered metal.
The process of removing substances or matter from a surface. Material removal processes include cutting, grinding, deburring, deflashing, polishing, waterjet cutting, and routering.
A section of raw material in thin wire form wrapped tightly around a base. Material spools are attached to additive print nozzles so that the raw material in the spool can be dispensed.
A rotating, multi-point cutting tool that is guided along a workpiece to create flat surfaces, slots, or other features. The term mill also refers to the machine that uses mills to perform milling operations on a workpiece.
A hollow cavity used to shape material. In metal casting, the mold is filled with liquid metal, which takes the shape of the mold as it solidifies.
A part with dimensions that are close to its final specified form after initial manufacturing steps. Near-net shape parts require little subsequent machining.
A part that meets consumer or manufacturer specifications, including tolerance and surface finish, directly after it is manufactured. Net shape parts do not need any further post processing after they are created.
A series of instructions produced by CAM software and used by a CNC machine to perform the necessary sequence of operations to complete a part based on a CAD design. Part programs are typically written in G code.
powder bed fusion
PBF. An additive manufacturing method that uses thermal energy to melt together layers of powdered polymer, metal, ceramic, or other material. Powder bed fusion processes often use either lasers or electron beams as thermal energy sources.
A metallic powder that is often used as a build material in additive manufacturing (AM). Powdered metal is stored in a material hopper and deposited through a nozzle or print head to build a part layer by layer in AM applications.
print head attachments
A portable additive manufacturing component that holds and distributes part build material. Print head attachments can be installed on many traditional CNC machines to convert them into hybrid machines.
An unprocessed or lightly processed substance, often referred to as feedstock, that is used in additive manufacturing (AM) machines to build parts or components. Raw materials for AM commonly come in powder, pellet, wire, or semi-liquid form.
The near-instantaneous interval of time that computers require to process data. Real time is virtually the same as actual time because computers process data nearly immediately.
The ability of a machine or process to continually deliver accurate and precise results. Repeatability measures how consistently a machine can replicate identical or near-identical parts.
An additive manufacturing process that forms an object by bonding sheets of material together using an adhesive, heat, brazing, or ultrasonic waves. Sheet lamination processes are sometimes ideal for creating prototypes but are not commonly used to manufacture multiple finished products.
A device equipped with software that can detect physical inputs, process them as data, and output digital signals. Smart sensors are more advanced than normal digital sensors since they can process data internally rather than simply sending digital signals to an external system to be processed.
Any manufacturing process in which a piece of raw material is machined into a desired final shape through a controlled material removal process. Subtractive manufacturing methods are fast but create a large amount of waste.
An expensive, complex metal alloy designed to perform under intense conditions, such as elevated temperatures. Superalloys are also known as high performance alloys.
An acceptable deviation from a desired dimension that meets specifications. Parts outside of a required tolerance must be discarded or reworked.
A series of coordinate positions that determine the movement of a tool during a machining operation. Toolpaths are expressed using G code commands.
total cost of ownership
TCO. An estimate of all the direct and indirect expenses associated with a purchase. The total cost of ownership of a hybrid AM machine takes into account several factors, including initial costs, maintenance and repair costs, labor, and the cost of raw materials used to produce parts on the machine.
An insert designed for turning operations on a CNC lathe. A turning insert on a hybrid manufacturing machine may be used to remove material from a part feature created with an additive tool.
A frequency above the range of human hearing. Ultrasonic frequencies are used to bond sheets of metal in ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM).
ultrasonic additive manufacturing
UAM. A sheet lamination process that uses high-frequency vibrations to bond successive layers of material together to build a final part. Ultrasonic additive manufacturing most frequently uses sheets of metal foil or tape as build material.
A material being machined or undergoing another type of processing. A workpiece may be subject to cutting, welding, forming, additive printing, or other operations.