Personal Protective Equipment 111
The class Personal Protective Equipment 111 introduces the purpose and uses of personal protective equipment (PPE). As defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), PPE minimizes exposure to hazards and helps prevent injury. PPE is available in several types, designs, and materials to suit a range of workplace conditions and hazards. PPE may be categorized by the area of the body it protects. Every employer is responsible for providing the appropriate PPE for employees who require it, and it is every employee’s responsibility to properly wear and use PPE correctly. In order to select appropriate PPE, employers must first evaluate the workplace with a hazard assessment.
After taking this class, users should be able to identify several common types of PPE, as well as the hazards and conditions associated with each type. Proper knowledge and use of PPE can greatly improve workplace safety.
Number of Lessons 20
- The Purpose of PPE
- PPE Standards
- OSHA PPE Compliance
- Hazard Assessments
- Selecting PPE
- Review: Introduction to PPE
- Types of Eye and Face Protection
- Head Protection
- Hearing Protection
- Review: Head and Face PPE
- Protective Clothing Materials
- PPE Clothing
- Foot and Leg Protection
- Hand and Arm Protection
- Review: Protective Clothing
- Air-Purifying Respirators
- Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators
- Fall Protection
- Sensors and Smart PPE
- Review: Additional PPE
- Describe the purpose of PPE.
- Describe PPE standards.
- Explain OSHA PPE compliance requirements for employers and employees.
- Explain the purpose of a hazard assessment.
- Identify criteria for selecting PPE.
- Describe the proper uses of common types of eye and face protection.
- Explain the characteristics of different types of hard hats.
- Describe the most common types of hearing protection.
- Explain the characteristics of different protective clothing materials.
- Identify some common types of protective clothing.
- Explain the characteristics of common types of foot and leg protection.
- Explain the characteristics of common forms of hand and arm protection.
- Describe air-purifying respirators.
- Describe atmosphere-supplying respirators.
- Describe common fall protection equipment.
- Describe smart PPE and protective sensors.
APRs. A respirator with a filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific contaminants from the air. Air-purifying respirators pass ambient air through the air-purifying element.
American National Standards Institute
ANSI. A private, non-profit organization that administers the U.S. voluntary standards and conformity assessment system. The American National Standards Institute provides a process for industry groups to create and publish the specifications for some PPE.
A sturdy device used to support the weight of fall protection equipment, employees, and the forces created by fall arrest. An anchorage point must be strong enough to withstand 5,000 pounds of force per employee if used to secure personal fall arrest equipment, or 5,400 pounds of dead weight if used to secure a lifeline.
American National Standards Institute. A private, non-profit organization that administers the U.S. voluntary standards and conformity assessment system. ANSI provides a process for industry groups to create and publish the specifications for some PPE.
ANSI standard Z89.1
American National Standards Institute standard that sets guidelines for the design, production, and use of protective headgear. ANSI standard Z89.1 determines OSHA requirements for headgear like hard hats.
An American National Standards Institute standard that sets guidelines for the design, production, and use of protective eyewear. The ANSI Z87.1 standard determines OSHA requirements for eye protection.
A fabric or leather body covering that ties over the neck and behind the back. Aprons protect the front of the body from chest to knee.
Fabric or leather sleeve that fits over the arm to protect from various hazards. Arm coverings are used when employees may be exposed to heat, sparks, or splash from chemicals or molten materials.
ASRs. A breathing device that supplies the wearer with clean air. Atmosphere-supplying respirators supply air to users from a source that is fully separate from ambient air.
Safety restraints that wrap around the wearer's waist and attach to a lifeline or a secure structure, such as a fixed ladder. Body belts are not sufficient for fall arrest systems but help prevent falls in fall restraint systems.
A protective head covering used in areas of low clearance that offers minimal protection from minor impacts and abrasions. Bump hats are not ANSI approved.
A non-porous synthetic rubber that is resistant to certain chemicals. Safety gloves made of butyl provide good protection against resins and hardeners.
Certification of Hazard Assessment Form
A document provided by OSHA that must be used to record the results of a hazard assessment. The Certification of Hazard Assessment Form notes workplace hazards, the date of the hazard assessment, and the name of the person who certified it.
A filter for gas and vapor or combination respirators that remove gasses and chemicals from the ambient air. Chemical filters are also called canisters or cartridges.
Chemical Resistance Selection Chart
A reference chart provided by OSHA. Chemical Resistance Selection Charts ensure that the correct chemical-resistance gloves are used because not all glove materials are rated for all chemical hazards.
A protective head covering that offers no protection against voltage and burns. A Class C hard hat is also known as a conductive hard hat.
A protective head covering that offers the highest level of protection against voltage and burns, up to 20,000 volts. A Class E hard hat is also known as an electrical hard hat.
A protective head covering that offers limited voltage protection, up to 2,200 volts. A Class G hard hat is also known as a general hard hat.
An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the air source is supplied by a hose to a freestanding tank, plus a small, wearable air tank carried by its user in case the main supply fails or the hose becomes damaged. Combination ASRs are best for confined spaces, extended work periods, or when an environment is IDLH or potentially IDLH.
combination foot and shin guards
A device that fits over the shins and most of the foot to protect from multiple hazards, including impacts. Some combination foot and shin guards may require additional toe guards.
A type of air-purifying respirator that protects against contaminant particles as well as gases or vapors with a combination of fiber and chemical filters. Combination respirators can cover the mouth, nose, and eyes.
The capability of computer systems and devices to share information across networks. Devices that can connect help advance industry but also pose cybersecurity risks.
Protective clothing that covers the entire body from the wrists to the ankles. Coveralls provide good general protection for the skin against hazards like skin irritants.
A component in fall arrest equipment that absorbs shock as it slows and stops a person or object during free fall. Deceleration devices used in fall arrest systems must prevent the person from decelerating beyond a distance of 3.5 feet (1.1 m).
The unit by which the intensity of sound is measured. If occupational noise reaches or exceeds 85 decibels over an eight-hour period, employees need to wear hearing protection.
A closely-woven cotton canvas fabric that resists penetration. Duck is used to make reusable clothing that protects against cuts and bruises.
Ear protection that is held in place by a headband and fully covers the outer ear. Earmuffs require a perfect seal around the ear that may be disrupted by hair, facial hair, or facial movements.
electrical hazard safety-toe shoes
A non-conductive safety shoe made to prevent the wearer from completing an electrical circuit with the ground. Electrical hazard safety-toe shoes can protect against circuits of up to 600 volts in dry conditions.
electrically conductive shoes
A safety shoe that prevents explosions due to buildup of static electricity in certain environments, such as agricultural grain elevators. Electrically conductive shoes are one type of specialty safety shoes described by OSHA.
eye and face protection
Articles of PPE that protect the eyes, eye sockets, or face from splashes, impacts, or fumes. Eye and face protection should provide unrestricted vision and movement.
A rigid, transparent plastic sheet that covers the operator's entire face to protect against dust or splashes. Face shields do not protect against impacts, so they are often worn with goggles.
PPE that protects against falls. Fall protection includes fall restraint and fall arrest systems.
A device used to protect one, two, or three fingers that may be exposed to a hazard, such as when the index finger, middle finger, and thumb of one hand are used to hold a fastener during assembly.
An inspection used to evaluate PPE for effectiveness and proper size. Fit-testing is required for all critical PPE.
Foot and leg PPE
Protective equipment that protects the lower body from hazards like voltage, splashes, or falling items. Foot and leg PPE includes safety shoes.
A safety shoe with built-in safety toes constructed to insulate the wearer's feet from heat and molten metal. Foundry shoes are designed to keep hot metal from lodging in eyelets, tongues, laces, or other shoe crevices.
gas and vapor respirators
A type of air-purifying respirator that protects against specific gas and vapor hazards with a chemical filter. Gas and vapor respirators can cover the mouth, nose, and eyes.
Tight-fitting eye protection that completely cover the eyes, the sockets, and the surrounding facial area. Goggles offer protection from impact, dust, chips, and splashes.
PPE that protects the hands and fingers. Hand protection includes protective gloves and finger guards.
A lightweight, protective head covering, usually made of plastic, used to protect the head from impacts, bumps, and electrical shock. Hard hats have a shock-absorbing lining with a headband and straps that suspend the shell away from the skull and provide ventilation.
A personal safety device, composed of a series of straps connected around the legs, waist, and shoulders, that is attached to a lifeline, lanyard, or hoist. Body harnesses are a component used within personal fall arrest systems.
A written, formal appraisal of the safety risks that exist within a workplace. A hazard assessment is often performed by the safety team during a walk-through.
A source of danger or possible injury. Hazards can be physical hazards, such as falling objects, or health hazards like chemical exposures.
PPE that protects the skull from falling items, bumps, or electrical hazards. Head protection is most often provided with a hard hat.
A condition or situation that may result in an illness. Airborne particles, repetitive motions, and some chemicals can be health hazards.
hearing conservation program
A formal program that consists of several components intended to prevent hearing loss. A hearing conservation program must include noise evaluations, hearing testing, and hearing protection.
PPE that protects from hazardous noise levels above 90 decibels. Hearing protection is most often provided by earplugs or earmuffs.
immediately dangerous to life and health
IDLH. Atmospheres that are capable of causing death, irreversible adverse health effects, or the impairment of an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. IDLH environments are classified as such if they lack oxygen or have unknown contents.
Substances like chemicals and dust that can irritate or damage the lungs, mouth, or throat when breathed. Inhalation hazards can be controlled with respiratory PPE.
A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap. Lanyards generally have a connector at each end used to attach a body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.
Goggles that protect against the intense light produced by lasers. Laser goggles are chosen based on the equipment and operating conditions in the workplace.
A polymer that is used to make rubber. Latex offers resistance to certain chemicals.
Heavy fabric made from animal hide. Leather is used in PPE to protect operators from sharp or hot material.
Lower leg covering made of leather or fabric that protects the leg from sparks and spatter. Leggings snap off and on for quick removal.
A fall protection component consisting of a flexible line that hangs either vertically or stretches horizontally and is attached to an anchorage. A lifeline serves as a means for connecting the components of a personal fall arrest system.
A method of protecting employees by preventing accidental machine startup through proper locking and labeling of machines during maintenance. Lockout/tagout is the common term for OSHA's Control of Hazardous Energy Standard.
A device that straps over a shoe to cover the upper portion of the foot and protect it from impacts and crushing. Metatarsal guards may be made from aluminum, steel, plastic, or fiber.
Professionally fitted ear protection made of silicone or rubber. Molded earplugs, or pre-formed earplugs, are individually molded.
Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories
NRTL. A private sector organization approved by OSHA that performs safety testing and certifications. Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories certify the safety of devices through listing and labeling.
A synthetic rubber product that offers protection from certain chemicals. Neoprene is used to make safety gloves.
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. A government agency under the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
A rubber-like material that resists petroleum or oil compounds. Nitrile is used to make safety gloves.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA. A government agency under the U.S. Dept. of Labor that sets the standards for working conditions in the United States. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration ensures that employees work in safe and healthy environments.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A government agency under the U.S. Dept. of Labor that sets the standards for working conditions in the United States. OSHA ensures that employees work in safe and healthy environments.
A protective pair of pants with an attached bib. Overalls protect the chest, abdomen, and legs.
A disposable material that has the properties of paper but behaves like fabric. Paper-like fiber protects against dust and some small splashes.
A type of air-purifying respirator that protects against contaminant particles, such as dust and mold, in a fibrous filter. Particulate respirators usually only cover the mouth and nose.
personal protective equipment
PPE. Any example of various safety equipment that employees wear or use to prevent injury in the workplace. Personal protective equipment can include clothing, accessories like goggles, and personal devices like gas leak sensors.
A condition or situation that may result in an injury. Slippery surfaces, broken or missing walkway railings, and flying debris are physical hazards.
Any working surface that lifts or moves to give employees better access to equipment or a task. Powered platforms, such as manlifts and vehicle mounted work platforms, are often areas where employees must use fall protection.
Personal Protective Equipment. Any example of various safety equipment that employees wear or use to prevent injury in the workplace. PPE can include clothing, accessories like goggles, and personal devices like gas leak sensors.
A protective device that detects the presence of or changes in hazards like gasses, temperature, and sound. PPE sensors can be worn on the body, attached to clothing, or embedded in other equipment.
Professionally fitted ear protection made of silicone or rubber. Pre-formed earplugs, or molded earplugs, are individually molded.
Protective garments that cover large portions of the body. Protective clothing like aprons and coveralls guards against a variety of hazards and often has other safety features, such as colors that improve visibility.
A glove made from a variety of materials to protect the hands from hazards such as chemicals, heat, or abrasion. Protective gloves are the most common type of hand protection used.
A specific mandate that is contained in a standard. Requirements for PPE are established by OSHA.
A breathing device worn to prevent inhalation of hazardous substances. Respirators may purify air or supply air for the wearer.
Equipment that protects against inhalation hazards like chemicals or dust. Respiratory PPE usually includes a respirator.
An elastic material made from organic or artificial latex. Rubber provides good insulation against electrical current and protection from many chemical compounds.
Fabric coated in or woven together with rubber. Rubberized fabric offers more protection against some chemicals and abrasions than untreated cloth.
The most common type of foot PPE that provides many different ways of protecting feet, such as from heat, impact, or electrical shock. All ANSI-approved safety shoes provide some toe protection.
Protective eyeglasses with metal or plastic frames and impact-resistant lenses that may or may not offer vision correction. Many safety spectacles also have protective side shields.
self-contained breathing apparatus
SCBA. An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the air source is carried by its user. A self-contained breathing apparatus is best during short-term exposure or when an environment is IDLH or potentially IDLH.
Disposable, self-forming ear protection that is designed for one use. Single-use earplugs are often made of waxed cotton, foam, or silicone rubber.
Protective devices that can connect to the internet. Smart PPE can record data about hazards, track location, and help improve communication in dangerous worksite conditions.
Molten metal spray produced during welding operations. Welding shields protect against spatter.
An established policy on a particular practice or method. OSHA standards have the same power as law, and non-compliance can result in fines and other penalties.
supplied air respirators
SARs. An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the air source is supplied by a long hose that connects to a stationary tank of compressed air. Supplied air respirators are best for long work periods in low-oxygen atmospheres and when an environment is not IDLH or potentially IDLH.
Three Foot Rule
A method to quickly estimate noise levels at a worksite. The Three Foot Rule states that noise levels are likely over 85 decibels if employees within three feet of each other must raise their voices to speak.
A device that fits over the toes of regular shoes to protect toes from being crushed. Toe guards may be made from aluminum, steel, or plastic.
Fabric made from cotton plants that has chemical additives that change its properties. Treated cotton is fire-resistant and can protect against dust, abrasion, and some chemicals.
Fabric made from sheep fur that has chemical additives that change its properties. Treated wool is fire-resistant and can protect against dust, abrasion, and some chemicals.
A protective head covering that is designed to protect against top-only impact. Type I hard hats protect against penetration of the hat by falling objects.
A protective head covering that is designed to protect against impact from the side, front, back, and top. Type II hard hats protect against chin strap breakage or elongation and penetration of the hat by falling objects.
UV. A potentially harmful wavelength of light that is below, or shorter than, violet on the light spectrum. Ultraviolet light can damage vision and burn skin.
The amount of difference in potential electrical force between two points. Voltage is measured in volts.
Any area in the workplace where employees must place their feet to travel from one place to the next, such as floors, platforms, stairs, and ladders. Walking-working surfaces are often areas where employees must use fall protection.
A thorough tour of a worksite. A walk-through is required for all hazard assessments.
A heat-resistant face covering that protects from spatter and sparks and contains a darkened lens to protect the eyes from the intense light produced during welding. The filters used for the darkened lens of a welding shield have specific shade numbers that correspond to each type of welding.