Shop Essentials (Applied Mathematics)

#### Manufacturing Process Applications: Part II 125

This class will introduce you to common finishing and coating processes, printed circuit board fabrication, and common material handling methods.

• Difficulty Beginner

• Format Online

• Number of Lessons 17

• Language English

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Course Outline
• Objectives
• Final Manufacturing Processes and Material Handling
• Finishing and Abrasives
• Deburring
• Mass Finishing Processes
• Fine Finishing and Shot Peening
• Polymer Coatings
• Electroplating and Anodizing
• Printed Circuit Boards
• Through-Hole Technology and Wave Soldering
• Surface-Mount Technology and Reflow Soldering
• Material Handling
• Automated Material Handling Systems
• Automatic Identification Systems
• Material Handling Loads and Unitizing
• Summary
Objectives
• Describe final manufacturing processes and material handling.
• Describe finishing.
• Describe deburring.
• Describe barrel and vibratory finishing.
• Describe abrasive flow machining, thermal energy method, and electrochemical deburring.
• Describe honing, lapping, and shot peening.
• Describe the polymer coatings and common polymer coating methods.
• Describe electroplating and anodizing.
• Describe printed circuit boards.
• Describe through-hole technology and wave soldering.
• Describe surface-mount technology and reflow soldering.
• Define material handling.
• Describe robots, automated guided vehicles, and automated storage and retrieval systems.
• Describe barcodes, radio frequency identification, and machine vision.
• Describe material handling loads and unitizing methods.
Glossary
Vocabulary Term
Definition

abrasive

A material or tool consisting of hard particles used to wear down, rub away, or machine material. Abrasive materials are often used in finishing operations.

abrasive flow machining

AFM. A finishing process that forces semi-solid abrasive media through a workpiece opening.

AFM

Abrasive flow machining. A finishing process that forces semi-solid abrasive media through a workpiece opening.

AGV

Automated guided vehicle. A driverless material handling mechanism that moves loads from one area to another. AGVs are controlled by guidance systems.

anode

The positive pole in an electrical circuit. Anodic electrocoating systems deposit a negatively charged coating onto a positively charged surface.

anodizing

A coating method that uses electricity to build an oxide layer on a ferrous workpiece. In anodizing, the workpiece is the anode.

AS/RS

Automated storage and retrieval system. Automated equipment used to insert and extract materials from a storage system.

automated guided vehicle

AGV. A driverless material handling mechanism that moves loads from one area to another. Automated guided vehicles are controlled by guidance systems.

automated storage and retrieval system

AS/RS. Automated equipment used to insert and extract materials from a storage system.

automatic identification system

A method used to identify and track materials with little or no need for human interference. Common automatic identification systems include barcodes and radio frequency identification.

barcode

A means of automatic identification that conveys numeric or alphanumeric information by a sequence of printed linear bars. Barcodes can also have two-dimensional, three-dimensional, or matrix formats.

barrel finishing

A mass finishing process that finishes parts inside a slowly rotating container filled with a solution and finishing media. Also called tumbling.

In material handling, a quantity of liquid or semi-solid material. Unlike unit loads, bulk loads are made of material that cannot be individually counted.

burr

A sharp, unwanted projection on a machined workpiece. Burrs are removed during finishing to increase the functionality and appearance of the part.

cathode

The negative pole in an electrical circuit. Cathodic electrocoating systems deposit a positively charged coating onto a negatively charged surface.

coating

A protective or decorative film applied to the surface of an object. Paint is a common type of coating.

cold working

The shaping of metal at temperatures much lower than the metal's molten state, often at room temperature. Cold working adds certain properties to the metal, such as increased strength and improved surface finish.

component

A basic electronic element with connecting leads or metallic pads. Components are intended to be connected together, usually by soldering to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit.

The copper platforms on printed circuit boards on which components are attached. On surface-mount technology boards, the pads are coated with solder paste to temporarily hold the components in place prior to soldering.

curing

The process during which a liquid becomes a dry, hard film. Ample curing is crucial to the successful performance of a coating.

data matrix

A type of barcode that uses two-dimensional cells, rather than a series of linear bars, to convey alphanumeric information.

deburring

A finishing process that removes burrs from a workpiece.

ECD

Electrochemical deburring. A deburring process that creates an electrical circuit between a workpiece, flowing electrolyte, and tool.

electrochemical deburring

ECD. A deburring process that creates an electrical circuit between a workpiece, flowing electrolyte, and tool.

electroplating

A coating method that uses electricity and a conductive solution to deposit a layer of plating metal on a metal or nonmetal workpiece. During electroplating, the workpiece is the cathode.

electrostatic fluidized bed dipping

A powder coating method that uses a stream of air and electricity to create a cloud of charged powder particles. Grounded parts are then immersed in a chamber holding the cloud of powder coating.

electrostatic spraying

A coating process that uses a spray gun to apply electrically charged particles to a grounded workpiece.

finishing

A final process performed on a part. Finishing processes include cleaning, final sizing, polishing, and applying coatings.

finishing media

Grains of abrasive or non-abrasive material used in mass finishing and other finishing operations. Sand and ceramics are common materials in finishing media.

fluidized bed dipping

A powder coating method that uses a stream of air to create a cloud of powder particles. Parts are then immersed in a chamber holding the cloud of powder coating.

flux

A substance that facilitates soldering, brazing, and welding by preventing oxidation and chemically cleaning the metals to be joined.

hand deburring

Removing burrs manually with the use of various hand-held tools, like knives, files, or motorized wire brushes.

honing

A finishing process that uses abrasive honing stones to grind away material from a workpiece. Honing is often used to correct minor errors in bored holes.

honing stones

A bonded abrasive tool used in honing processes. Several individual honing stones are often attached to a motorized rotary device.

ion

An atom or molecule that gains an electrical charge after it has either lost or gained electrons.

lap

A tool used in lapping. Fine abrasives in the lap or in a compound dispersed between the lap and the workpiece grind away small amounts of stock.

lapping

A final finishing process that uses a fine abrasive to grind away small amounts of material from a workpiece.

A conductor that provides a path for electricity to flow. In printed circuit boards, leads are thin wires on electrical components.

machine vision

An automatic identification system that uses computer processing equipment to recognize and identify materials based on images scanned by a camera or cameras.

mass finishing

Finishing a group of pieces simultaneously, usually by barrel or vibratory finishing.

material handling

The strategy and devices used to move and store materials during the production cycle.

matrix barcode

A type of barcode that uses two-dimensional cells, rather than a series of linear bars, to convey alphanumeric information.

nestable

Having the ability to fit within another object. When empty, nestable pallets fit within one other to maximize space. Pallets used during material handling and packaging are often nestable.

organic polymer

Polymers that are not synthesized by humans. In coating processes, organic polymers are in a liquid or powder form.

oxide

A chemical compound containing oxygen and one other element.

pallet

An elevated platform used in unit load material handling. Pallets are commonly made of wood, plastic, or corrugated fibers.

PCB

Printed circuit board. A layered construction of conductive and nonconductive material used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways.

pick-and-place machine

A device that transfers objects from one place to another. In PCB assembly, pick-and-place machines are used to arrange surface mount devices.

plated through hole

A conductive hole that connect layers in a multi-layer printed circuit board. Also called a PTH hole or via.

printed circuit board

PCB. A layered construction of conductive and nonconductive material used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways.

PTH

Plated through hole. A conductive hole that connect layers in a multi-layer printed circuit board. Also called a via.

RFI or RFID. An automatic identification system that uses transponder tags to send identification information through radio waves.

reflow soldering

An automated soldering process in which PCBs are passed through an oven on a conveyor belt. Heat from the oven causes granules of solder to melt and form a joint.

RFI

Radio frequency identification or RFID. An automatic identification system that uses transponder tags to send identification information through radio waves.

RFID

Radio frequency identification or RFI. An automatic identification system that uses transponder tags to send identification information through radio waves.

robot

A material handling mechanism that can be programmed to perform a variety of complicated, repetitive tasks. Robots often have an extendable arm with a gripper.

shot

The round finishing media used in shot peening. Steel, glass, and ceramics are common shot materials.

shot peening

A finishing method that uses a propelled stream of round shot beads to cold work metal surfaces. Shot peening corrects minor surface defects and strengthens the material.

SMT

Surface-mount technology. A type of printed circuit board having component leads that are attached to the surface of the board. Surface-mount technology components are often attached to the board by reflow soldering.

solder

A metal alloy with a melting range below 840°F (450 °C), which is melted to join metallic surfaces.

solder paste

A combination of powder solder particles and flux. Solder paste is commonly used to assemble surface-mount technology PCBs.

surface-mount technology

SMT. A type of printed circuit board having component leads that are attached to the surface of the board. Surface-mount technology components are often attached to the board by reflow soldering.

TEM

Thermal energy method. A fast deburring process that burns off workpiece burrs by igniting a combustible gas enveloping the workpiece.

thermal energy method

TEM. A fast deburring process that burns off workpiece burrs by igniting a combustible gas enveloping the workpiece.

through-hole technology

THT. A type of printed circuit board having component leads that are punched through the board and then bent or clipped. Component leads on through-hole technology boards are usually connected by wave soldering.

THT

Through-hole technology. A type of printed circuit board having component leads that are punched through the board and then bent or clipped. Component leads on through-hole technology boards are usually connected by wave soldering.

trace

Copper pathways that electrically connect components on printed circuit boards. Traces are created by selectively etching away the non-conductive top layer of the board to reveal the conductive layer underneath.

transponder tag

A tag containing a microchip and a responder antenna. In radio frequency identification systems, transponder tags send identification information in radio waves to a reading device.

tumbling

A mass finishing process that finishes parts inside a slowly rotating container filled with a solution and finishing media. Also called barrel finishing.

In material handling, a number of individual items grouped together for transport or storage.

unitizing

Grouping individual items into unit loads for easy storage or transport. Pallets and plastic wrap are common means of unitizing.

Any step in the production process that improves the product for the customer. For a process to be value-added, a customer must be willing to pay for it.

via

A conductive hole that connect layers in a multi-layer printed circuit board. Also known as plated through hole or PTH.

vibratory finishing

A mass finishing process that finishes parts by rotating them inside a vibrating container filled with a solution and finishing media.

viscosity

A fluid's resistance to flow. The viscosity of a coating is adjusted so that the coating can be easily applied to a surface.

VOC

Volatile organic compound. A harmful gas or vapor released into the atmosphere when a liquid solvent volatilizes, or vaporizes. The EPA severely restricts the use of solvents as carriers for coatings, as solvents release VOCs.

volatile organic compound

VOC. A harmful gas or vapor released into the atmosphere when a liquid solvent volatilizes, or vaporizes. The EPA severely restricts the use of solvents as carriers for coatings, as solvents release VOCs.

wave soldering

An automated soldering process in which through-hole technology PCBs are loaded onto a conveyor that passes over a vat of molten solder. As the conveyor belt moves, a wave is created with a pump. The bottom of the board hits the crest of the wave, and the solder sticks through capillary action.

wire brush

A finishing tool with wire filament used to remove burrs, scale, and flash.